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Leinhardt, Gaea; And Others – American Educational Research Journal, 1981
Reading instruction and its effects were examined for 105 students in elementary classrooms for the learning disabled. Extensive detailed observations of students, teachers, and instructional material were used to explore the plausibility of a causal model of the effects of reading behaviors and instruction on students' reading performance.…
Descriptors: Classroom Observation Techniques, Classroom Research, Elementary Education, Instructional Improvement
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Leinhardt, Gaea; Seewald, Andrea Mar – Journal of Educational Measurement, 1981
In studying the effectiveness of different instructional programs, a criterion measure can favor one of the programs because there is greater overlap between the content covered on the test and in that program. This overlap can be measured using teacher estimates or teacher estimates combined with curriculum analysis. (Author/BW)
Descriptors: Criterion Referenced Tests, Curriculum, Elementary School Mathematics, Learning Disabilities