ERIC Number: EJ1113627
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Oct
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Implementation of Local Wellness Policies in Schools: Role of School Systems, School Health Councils, and Health Disparities
Hager, Erin R.; Rubio, Diana S.; Eidel, G. Stewart; Penniston, Erin S.; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I.; Fox, Renee E.; Black, Maureen M.
Journal of School Health, v86 n10 p742-750 Oct 2016
Background: Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and having a school-level wellness team/school health council (SHC), with stronger associations among schools without disparity enrollment (majority African-American/Hispanic or low-income students). Methods: Online surveys were administered: 24 systems (support), 1349 schools (LWP implementation, perceived system support, SHC). The state provided school demographics. Analyses included multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Results: Response rates were 100% (systems)/55.2% (schools). Among schools, 44.0% had SHCs, 22.6% majority (=75%) African-American/Hispanic students, and 25.5% majority (=75%) low-income (receiving free/reduced-price meals). LWP implementation (17-items) categorized as none = 36.3%, low (1-5 items) = 36.3%, high (6+ items) = 27.4%. In adjusted models, greater likelihood of LWP implementation was observed among schools with perceived system support (high versus none relative risk ratio, RRR = 1.63, CI: 1.49, 1.78; low versus none RRR = 1.26, CI: 1.18, 1.36) and SHCs (high versus none RRR = 6.8, CI: 4.07, 11.37; low versus none RRR = 2.24, CI: 1.48, 3.39). Disparity enrollment did not moderate associations (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Schools with perceived system support and SHCs had greater likelihood of LWP implementation, with no moderating effect of disparity enrollment. SHCs/support may overcome LWP implementation obstacles related to disparities.
Descriptors: Wellness, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Online Surveys, School Policy, School Health Services, Minority Group Students, Regression (Statistics), Racial Composition, Low Income Groups, Enrollment
Wiley-Blackwell. 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148. Tel: 800-835-6770; Tel: 781-388-8598; Fax: 781-388-8232; e-mail: email@example.com; Web site: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS); Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (NIH); National Institutes of Health (DHHS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: 2B01OT009025|5U58DP003497|U48DP001929|K12HD434898|P30DK072488