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Varol, Filiz; Farran, Dale – Early Childhood Education Journal, 2007
Mental computation helps children understand how numbers work, how to make decisions about procedures, and how to create different strategies to solve math problems. Although researchers agree on the importance of mental computation skills, they debate how to help students develop these skills. The present study explored the existing literature in…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Mental Computation, Cognitive Processes, Numeracy
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Ortiz, Enrique – International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 2014
Students start to memorize arithmetic facts from early elementary school mathematics activities. Their fluency or lack of fluency with these facts could affect their efforts as they carry out mental calculations as adults. This study investigated participants' levels of brain activation and possible reasons for these levels as they solved…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Arithmetic, Problem Solving, Measurement Equipment
Ghazali, Munirah; Alias, Rohana; Ariffin, Noor Asrul Anuar; Ayub, Ayminsyadora – Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 2010
This paper reports on a study to examine mental computation strategies used by Year 1, Year 2, and Year 3 students to solve addition and subtraction problems. The participants in this study were twenty five 7 to 9 year-old students identified as excellent, good and satisfactory in their mathematics performance from a school in Penang, Malaysia.…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Foreign Countries, Number Concepts, Subtraction
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Tsao, Yea-Ling – Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 2004
The purpose of this study is to a) explore connections among number sense, mental computation performance and the written computation performance of elementary preservice school teachers; and b) explore the correlation among mental computation skills, computation skills, effect issues and number sense. The sample was composed of students in six…
Descriptors: Numeracy, Numbers, Computation, Mathematics Skills
Heirdsfield, Ann M. – International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2003
The focus of this study was to investigate mental computation conceptual frameworks that Heirdsfield (2001c) formulated to explain the difference between proficient (accurate and flexible) mental computers and accurate (but not flexible) mental computers. A further aim was to explore the potential for students' developing efficient mental…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Mathematical Logic, Mathematics Instruction, Cognitive Processes
Chow, Wing Yee – ProQuest LLC, 2013
This thesis explores how predictions about upcoming language inputs are computed during real-time language comprehension. Previous research has demonstrated humans' ability to use rich contextual information to compute linguistic prediction during real-time language comprehension, and it has been widely assumed that contextual information can…
Descriptors: Reading Comprehension, Language Processing, Prediction, Eye Movements
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Callingham, Rosemary; Watson, Jane – Mathematics Education Research Journal, 2004
In this article, data from a study of the mental computation competence of students in grades 3 to 10 are presented. Students responded to mental computation items, presented orally, that included operations applied to fractions, decimals and percents. The data were analysed using Rasch modelling techniques, and a six-level hierarchy of part-whole…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Competence, Arithmetic, Mathematical Concepts
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Reys, Barbara J. – Arithmetic Teacher, 1985
The history of mental computation in the elementary school curriculum is briefly described, followed by discussion of the benefits of mental computation. How thinking skills are enhanced is then illustrated. (MNS)
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics, History
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Besner, Derek; Borowsky, Ron – Psychological Review, 2006
This paper comments on the article by Plaut and Booth. Plaut and Booth's first simulation shows that there is essentially perfect discrimination between word and nonwords sharing the same orthographic structure when the simulation is carried out in the way we suggested. We take the view that Plaut and Booth's new simulation work settles little…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Word Recognition, Simulation, Visual Discrimination
Weber, William B., Jr. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1999
Discusses overall mental computation achievement and limits discussion to strategies middle school students used when computing with whole numbers, decimals, and fractions. Suggests that the development of conceptual knowledge of numbers is an important prerequisite for the understanding of mental computation procedures. (Contains 31 references.)…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Decimal Fractions, Fractions
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Hickendorff, Marian; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.; Heiser, Willem J. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2010
Individual differences in strategy use (choice and accuracy) were analyzed. A sample of 362 Grade 6 students solved complex division problems under 2 different conditions. In the choice condition students were allowed to use either a mental or a written strategy. In the subsequent no-choice condition, they were required to use a written strategy.…
Descriptors: Individual Differences, Grade 6, Item Response Theory, Computation
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Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M. – Cognitive Science, 2014
Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…
Descriptors: Cognitive Structures, Pattern Recognition, Markov Processes, Cognitive Processes
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Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel; Castellanos, M. Eugenia; Hijón-Neira, Raquel – IEEE Transactions on Education, 2016
Recursion is one of the most difficult programming topics for students. In this paper, an instructional method is proposed to enhance students' understanding of recursion tracing. The proposal is based on the use of rules to translate linear recursion algorithms into equivalent, iterative ones. The paper has two main contributions: the…
Descriptors: Computer Science Education, Programming, Teaching Methods, Mathematics
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Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul – Cognitive Science, 2006
We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…
Descriptors: Computation, Brain, Quantum Mechanics, Cognitive Processes
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Hope, John A.; Sherrill, James M. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1987
Four methods of solutions and 12 calculative strategies were found from introspective reports of 15 skilled and 15 unskilled students in grades 11 and 12 doing mental multiplication. Unskilled students used strategies more suited to written than mental computation, while skilled students used strategies based on number properties. (MNS)
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Educational Research, Error Patterns
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