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Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2009
Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…
Descriptors: Numbers, Infants, Logical Thinking, Number Concepts
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Ebersbach, Mirjam; Luwel, Koen; Frick, Andrea; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2008
This experiment aimed to expand previous findings on the development of mental number representation. We tested the hypothesis that children's familiarity with numbers is directly reflected by the shape of their mental number line. This mental number line was expected to be linear as long as numbers lay within the range of numbers children were…
Descriptors: Familiarity, Numbers, Computation, Children
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Caviola, Sara; Mammarella, Irene C.; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lucangeli, Daniela – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2012
The involvement of working memory (WM) was examined in two types of mental calculation tasks: exact and approximate. Specifically, children attending Grades 3 and 4 of primary school were involved in three experiments that examined the role of verbal and visuospatial WM in solving addition problems presented in vertical or horizontal format. For…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Short Term Memory, Grade 3, Grade 4
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Barrouillet, Pierre; Mignon, Mathilde; Thevenot, Catherine – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by third graders in solving the 81 elementary subtractions that are the inverses of the one-digit additions with addends from 1 to 9 recently studied by Barrouillet and Lepine. Although the pattern of relationship between individual differences in working memory, on the one hand, and…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Memory, Grade 3, Subtraction
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Janssen, Rianne; De Boeck, Paul; Viaene, Mieke; Vallaeys, Lies – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1999
Speeded performance on simple mental addition problems of 6- and 7-year-olds with and without mild mental retardation was modeled from a person perspective and an item perspective, both inferred from Siegler's work. Models from item response theory were used to test hypotheses. Found that all children follow same developmental path in acquiring…
Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Comparative Analysis
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Ansari, Daniel; Donlan, Chris; Thomas, Michael S.C.; Ewing, Sandra A.; Peen, Tiffany; Kapmiloff-Smith, Annette – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2003
Understanding of the cardinality principle in children with Williams Syndrome (WS) was compared to that of typically developing children. Findings indicated that such understanding was extremely delayed in WS children and only at the level predicted by their visuo-spatial mental age. Findings suggested that visuo-spatial ability played a greater…
Descriptors: Children, Comparative Analysis, Computation, Concept Formation
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Conlin, J.A.; Gathercole, S.E.; Adams, J.W. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2005
Three experiments investigated the roles of resource-sharing and intrinsic memory demands in complex working memory span performance in 7- and 9-year-olds. In Experiment 1, the processing complexity of arithmetic operations was varied under conditions in which processing times were equivalent. Memory span did not differ as a function of processing…
Descriptors: Memory, Arithmetic, Mental Computation, Language Processing
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Adams, John W.; Hitch, Graham J. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1997
Two experiments investigated extent to which English- and German-speaking childrens' mental arithmetic was constrained by working memory. Found higher mental addition spans when numbers were visible throughout calculation than when not. Variation in addition span with age and arithmetical operation difficulty approximated to a linear function of…
Descriptors: Addition, Age Differences, Arithmetic, Children
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Little, Todd D.; Widaman, Keith F. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1995
Validated models of mental addition processing by testing children and adults in a production task paradigm. Examined individual-difference relations between strategy choice parameters and criterion-related measures of ability. Found that individual differences in the apparently calculative processes that underlie numerical facility are highly…
Descriptors: Addition, Adolescents, Age Differences, Cognitive Ability
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Koshmider, John W.; Ashcraft, Mark H. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1991
In one experiment, subjects from third grade through college relied on memory retrieval rather than on counting to solve multiplication problems. An effect of confusing problems on error rates and reaction times indicated the activation of related information. In a second experiment, subjects demonstrated automaticity of fact retrieval on simple…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, College Students, Computation, Elementary School Students
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Hamann, Mary Sue; Ashcraft, Mark H. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1985
First, fourth, seventh, and tenth graders were timed when solving simple and complex addition problems, then were presented similar problems in untimed interviews. Manipulation of confusion between addition and multiplication, where multiplication answers were given to addition problems (3 + 4 = 12) indicated an interrelatedness of these…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Arithmetic, Cognitive Processes, Elementary School Students
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Wolters, G.; And Others – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1990
Hypothesized that arithmetic calculating procedures and types of problems that necessitate more subproblems will lead to longer solution times. Data from 36 third grade students who mentally computed problems with sums greater than 20 and less than 100, confirmed both hypotheses. (RH)
Descriptors: Arithmetic, Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Elementary School Students
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van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2008
The SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect refers to the finding that small numbers facilitate left responses, whereas larger numbers facilitate right responses. The development of this spatial association was studied in 7-, 8-, and 9-year-olds, as well as in adults, using a task where number magnitude was essential to…
Descriptors: Number Concepts, Numeracy, Children, Adults
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Robinson, Katherine M.; Arbuthnott, Katherine D.; Rose, Danica; McCarron, Michelle C.; Globa, Carin A.; Phonexay, Sylvia D. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2006
Age-related changes in children's performance on simple division problems (e.g., 6 divided by 2, 72 divided by 9) were investigated by asking children in Grades 4 through 7 to solve 32 simple division problems. Differences in performance were found across grade, with younger children performing more slowly and less accurately than older children.…
Descriptors: Intermediate Grades, Grade 4, Grade 5, Grade 6