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Peer reviewed

Reys, Robert E.; And Others – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1995

Assessed attitude, computational preferences, and mental computational performance of 176, 187, 186, and 206 Japanese students in grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, respectively. Found wide ranges of performance on mental computation, that visual modes of presentation increased performance levels, and a narrow range of strategies. Contains assessments. (37…

Descriptors: Attitudes, Computation, Elementary School Students, Elementary Secondary Education

Peer reviewed

Hope, John A.; Sherrill, James M. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1987

Four methods of solutions and 12 calculative strategies were found from introspective reports of 15 skilled and 15 unskilled students in grades 11 and 12 doing mental multiplication. Unskilled students used strategies more suited to written than mental computation, while skilled students used strategies based on number properties. (MNS)

Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Educational Research, Error Patterns

Peer reviewed

Markovits, Zvia; Sowder, Judith – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1994

Examined the effects of intervention in the instruction of 12 male seventh-grade students for the purpose of developing number sense. Results indicate that after instruction students were more likely to use strategies to solve number magnitude, mental computation, and computational estimation problems that reflected number sense. (Contains 50…

Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Cognitive Style, Computation, Estimation (Mathematics)

Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2012

Three studies explore arithmetic tasks that support both substitutive and basic relational meanings for the equals sign. The duality of meanings enabled children to engage meaningfully and purposefully with the structural properties of arithmetic statements in novel ways. Some, but not all, children were successful at the adapted task and were…

Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Arithmetic, Symbols (Mathematics), Equations (Mathematics)

Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2004

Fourth-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also generated flexible solution strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…

Descriptors: Figurative Language, Semiotics, Computer Uses in Education, Concept Formation

Peer reviewed

Sachar, Jane – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1978

The author describes the structure, content, and standardization of the Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test (SMAT), which was developed at Stanford University from 1973 to 1975. (MN)

Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Arithmetic, Criterion Referenced Tests, Elementary Education

Peer reviewed

Baroody, Arthur J. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1987

Kindergartners appeared to differ in their readiness to use a concrete counting strategy for addition. Many persisted in counting with objects. Mental counting strategies were sequenced. (MNS)

Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Computation

Peer reviewed

Hope, John A. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1987

This case study examined the performance of a 13-year-old highly skilled mental calculator on mental multiplication tasks. She solved difficult tasks by using various ingenious calculation methods, including distributing, factoring, and recalling the product directly. Implications for instruction are reported. (Author/RH)

Descriptors: Academically Gifted, Adolescents, Computation, Elementary Education

Peer reviewed

Beishuizen, Meindert – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1993

Describes a program in second-grade Dutch mathematics classes that emphasizes mental addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers up to 100. Deals with a strategy of counting by 10s from any number. (Contains 56 references.) (RLB)

Descriptors: Addition, Case Studies, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Style

Peer reviewed

Bestgen, Barbara J.; And Others – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1980

This 12-week study examined attitudes and performance of 187 preservice elementary teachers on computational estimation and evaluated practice with and without instruction on specific mental estimation strategies. Analysis showed significant differences in estimation performance in favor of the groups receiving regular practice. (MK)

Descriptors: Attitudes, College Mathematics, Computation, Educational Research

Peer reviewed

Thompson, Patrick W.; Dreyfus, Tommy – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1988

Investigates whether elementary school students can construct operations of thought for integers and integer addition crucial for understanding elementary algebra. Two sixth graders were taught using a computer. Results included both students being able to construct mental operations for negating arbitrary integers and determining sign and…

Descriptors: Computation, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Oriented Programs, Elementary Education

Peer reviewed

Pepper, Kristine L.; Hunting, Robert P. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1998

Examines strategies used by preschool children to subdivide items and focuses on how counting and sharing relate to one another. Indicates that children exhibited alternative strategies--suggesting use of a recipient as a mental cycle-marker and an adjacent recipient strategy--with pauses between allocations suggesting a re-presentation of lots…

Descriptors: Computation, Fractions, Learning Strategies, Mathematics Education

Peer reviewed

Levine, Deborah R. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1982

Relations among the number and types of strategies used by 89 college students when estimating, quantitative ability, and computational estimation ability were investigated. Students of relatively high quantitative ability were found to be better estimators and used more strategy types. (MP)

Descriptors: Basic Skills, Cognitive Processes, Computation, Educational Research