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Brooks, Neon B.; Barner, David; Frank, Michael; Goldin-Meadow, Susan – Cognitive Science, 2018
People frequently gesture when problem-solving, particularly on tasks that require spatial transformation. Gesture often facilitates task performance by interacting with internal mental representations, but how this process works is not well understood. We investigated this question by exploring the case of mental abacus (MA), a technique in which…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Problem Solving, Computation, Schemata (Cognition)
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Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M. – Cognitive Science, 2014
Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…
Descriptors: Cognitive Structures, Pattern Recognition, Markov Processes, Cognitive Processes
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Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul – Cognitive Science, 2006
We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…
Descriptors: Computation, Brain, Quantum Mechanics, Cognitive Processes
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Chater, Nick; Oaksford, Mike – Cognitive Science, 2013
Judea Pearl has argued that counterfactuals and causality are central to intelligence, whether natural or artificial, and has helped create a rich mathematical and computational framework for formally analyzing causality. Here, we draw out connections between these notions and various current issues in cognitive science, including the nature of…
Descriptors: Causal Models, Intelligence, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Science
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Hameroff, Stuart R. – Cognitive Science, 2007
In their article, "Is the Brain a Quantum Computer,?" Litt, Eliasmith, Kroon, Weinstein, and Thagard (2006) criticize the Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" quantum computational model of consciousness, arguing instead for neurocomputation as an explanation for mental phenomena. Here I clarify and defend Orch OR, show how Orch OR and neurocomputation are…
Descriptors: Brain, Cognitive Processes, Diagnostic Tests, Neurological Organization
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Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard – Cognitive Science, 2017
Mangarevan traditionally contained two numeration systems: a general one, which was highly regular, decimal, and extraordinarily extensive; and a specific one, which was restricted to specific objects, based on diverging counting units, and interspersed with binary steps. While most of these characteristics are shared by numeration systems in…
Descriptors: Arithmetic, Mental Computation, Anthropology, Archaeology
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Schultheis, Holger; Bertel, Sven; Barkowsky, Thomas – Cognitive Science, 2014
This article presents research into human mental spatial reasoning with orientation knowledge. In particular, we look at reasoning problems about cardinal directions that possess multiple valid solutions (i.e., are spatially underdetermined), at human preferences for some of these solutions, and at representational and procedural factors that lead…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Cognitive Processes, Problem Solving, Computation
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Kintsch, Walter – Cognitive Science, 2012
In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for…
Descriptors: Aesthetics, Cognitive Science, Systems Approach, Cognitive Processes
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Cleeremans, Axel – Cognitive Science, 2014
Consciousness remains a mystery--"a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about--yet" (Dennett, D. C., 1991, p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Brain, Metacognition
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Smolensky, Paul – Cognitive Science, 2006
In this article, I survey the integrated connectionist/symbolic (ICS) cognitive architecture in which higher cognition must be formally characterized on two levels of description. At the microlevel, parallel distributed processing (PDP) characterizes mental processing; this PDP system has special organization in virtue of which it can be…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Research Projects, Theories