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Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K. – Cognition, 2008
Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular ("caught") and regular ("filled") past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into…
Descriptors: Cues, Morphology (Languages), Phonemes, Cognitive Psychology
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Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd – Cognition, 2006
Can children reason the Bayesian way? We argue that the answer to this question depends on how numbers are represented, because a representation can do part of the computation. We test, for the first time, whether Bayesian reasoning can be elicited in children by means of natural frequencies. We show that when information was presented to fourth,…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Probability, Bayesian Statistics, Intermediate Grades
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Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan – Cognition, 2013
Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…
Descriptors: Mental Computation, Arithmetic, Cognitive Processes, Efficiency
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Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Tzelgov, Joseph; Henik, Avishai – Cognition, 2008
Are small and large numbers represented similarly or differently on the mental number line? The size effect was used to argue that numbers are represented differently. However, recently it has been argued that the size effect is due to the comparison task and is not derived from the mental number line per se. Namely, it is due to the way that the…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Numbers, Computation, Effect Size
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Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Tzelgov, Joseph; Henik, Avishai – Cognition, 2008
Verguts and Van Opstal [Verguts, T., & Van Opstal, F. (2008). A colorful walk, but is it on the mental number line? Reply to Cohen Kadosh, Tzelgov, and Henik, Cognition, 106, 558-563] cleverly explained the results of Cohen Kadosh, Tzelgov, and Henik [Cohen Kadosh, R., Tzelgov, J., & Henik, A. (2008). A synesthetic walk on the mental number line:…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Computation, Numbers, Cognitive Processes
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Loftus, Andrea M.; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Bradshaw, John L. – Cognition, 2008
Adaptation to right-shifting prisms improves left neglect for mental number line bisection. This study examined whether adaptation affects the mental number line in normal participants. Thirty-six participants completed a mental number line task before and after adaptation to either: left-shifting prisms, right-shifting prisms or control…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Computation, Control Groups, Cognitive Processes
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Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B. – Cognition, 2009
Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…
Descriptors: Inferences, Cognitive Development, Models, Computation
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Domahs, Frank; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph – Cognition, 2010
In recent years, a strong functional relationship between finger counting and number processing has been suggested. Developmental studies have shown specific effects of the structure of the individual finger counting system on arithmetic abilities. Moreover, the orientation of the mental quantity representation ("number line") seems to be…
Descriptors: Number Concepts, Computation, German, Mathematics Instruction
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Izard, Veronique; Dehaene, Stanislas – Cognition, 2008
Human adults are thought to possess two dissociable systems to represent numbers: an approximate quantity system akin to a mental number line, and a verbal system capable of representing numbers exactly. Here, we study the interface between these two systems using an estimation task. Observers were asked to estimate the approximate numerosity of…
Descriptors: Computation, Numbers, Stimuli, Concept Mapping
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Santens, Seppe; Gevers, Wim – Cognition, 2008
In this study, we directly contrast two approaches that have been proposed to explain the SNARC effect. The traditional direct mapping account suggests that a direct association exists between the position of a number on the mental number line and the location of the response. On the other hand, accounts are considered that propose an intermediate…
Descriptors: Numbers, Mental Computation, Number Systems, Number Concepts
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Zhou, Xinlin; Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Lan; Dong, Qi – Cognition, 2008
Whether two-digit numbers are represented holistically (each digit pair processed as one number) or compositionally (each digit pair processed separately as a decade digit and a unit digit) remains unresolved. Two experiments were conducted to examine the distance, magnitude, and SNARC effects in a number-matching task involving two-digit numbers.…
Descriptors: Numbers, Measurement Techniques, Number Systems, Number Concepts
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Cowan, Richard; Carney, Daniel P. J. – Cognition, 2006
The exceptionality of the skills of calendrical savants and the role of practice were investigated. Experiment 1 compared four autistic calendrical savants to Professor Conway, a distinguished mathematician with calendrical skills. Professor Conway answered questions over a greater range of years but some savants knew more calendrical…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Mental Computation, Skill Development, Autism
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Lu, Aitao; Hodges, Bert; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X. – Cognition, 2009
Time perception has long been known to be affected by numerical representations. Recent studies further demonstrate that when participants estimate the duration of Arabic numbers, number magnitude, though task-irrelevant, biases duration judgment to produce underestimation for smaller numbers and overestimation for larger numbers. Such effects…
Descriptors: Numbers, Computation, Context Effect, Cognitive Processes
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Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine – Cognition, 2013
The problem-size effect in simple additions, that is the increase in response times (RTs) and error rates with the size of the operands, is one of the most robust effects in cognitive arithmetic. Current accounts focus on factors that could affect speed of retrieval of the answers from long-term memory such as the occurrence of interference in a…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Mental Computation, Addition, Long Term Memory
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Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M. – Cognition, 2008
We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Critical Thinking, Animals, Animal Behavior