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Did you mean Mental competition?

Besner, Derek; Borowsky, Ron – Psychological Review, 2006

This paper comments on the article by Plaut and Booth. Plaut and Booth's first simulation shows that there is essentially perfect discrimination between word and nonwords sharing the same orthographic structure when the simulation is carried out in the way we suggested. We take the view that Plaut and Booth's new simulation work settles little…

Descriptors: Mental Computation, Word Recognition, Simulation, Visual Discrimination

Peer reviewed

Reys, Barbara J.; Reys, Robert E. – Arithmetic Teacher, 1986

After summing up the current status related to estimation and mental computation, what needs to be done to promote increased instruction on these topics is discussed. (MNS)

Descriptors: Editorials, Educational Change, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics

Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul – Cognitive Science, 2006

We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…

Descriptors: Computation, Brain, Quantum Mechanics, Cognitive Processes

Katayama, Osamu – Look Japan, 1993

Discusses the efforts of one Japanese company that makes abaci to demonstrate that the abacus continues to be a feasible alternative as a calculator in the elementary school mathematics curriculum. Argues that the abacus improves number sense, mental computation, and mathematics achievement for students who use the abacus. (MDH)

Descriptors: Calculators, Computation, Elementary Education, Foreign Countries

Hameroff, Stuart R. – Cognitive Science, 2007

In their article, "Is the Brain a Quantum Computer,?" Litt, Eliasmith, Kroon, Weinstein, and Thagard (2006) criticize the Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" quantum computational model of consciousness, arguing instead for neurocomputation as an explanation for mental phenomena. Here I clarify and defend Orch OR, show how Orch OR and neurocomputation are…

Descriptors: Brain, Cognitive Processes, Diagnostic Tests, Neurological Organization

DeBower, Carrol E.; DeBower, Kari L. – 1990

Reasons for poor performance in mathematics by students in the United States are discussed. According to the authors, too many students never experience arithmetic at a physical, concrete level. Students are drilled in arithmetic facts without any meaningful context and are given few opportunities to use numerical concepts in real-life…

Descriptors: Algebra, Calculators, Cognitive Development, Computer Uses in Education

Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Tzelgov, Joseph; Henik, Avishai – Cognition, 2008

Are small and large numbers represented similarly or differently on the mental number line? The size effect was used to argue that numbers are represented differently. However, recently it has been argued that the size effect is due to the comparison task and is not derived from the mental number line per se. Namely, it is due to the way that the…

Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Numbers, Computation, Effect Size

Thompson, Ian – Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath, 2007

The aim of this series of four articles is to look critically, and in some detail, at the primary strategy approach to written calculation, as set out on pages 5 to 16 of the "Guidance paper" "Calculation." The underlying principle of that approach is that children should use mental methods whenever they are appropriate, whereas for calculations…

Descriptors: Computation, Number Concepts, Mathematics Instruction, Cognitive Processes

Parslow, Graham R. – Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 2010

As an undergraduate in the 1960s, the author mostly used a slide rule for calculations and a Marchant-brand motor-operated mechanical calculator for statistics. This was after an elementary education replete with learning multiplication tables and taking speed and accuracy tests in arithmetic. Times have changed and assuming even basic calculation…

Descriptors: Medical Students, Physicians, Numeracy, Mathematics Skills

Cohen, Adam B. – American Psychologist, 2010

Responds to comments by H. Takooshian and J. K. Tebes on the current author's original article, "Many forms of culture". The current author argued that psychologists tend to focus on too narrow a set of cultures (ethnic and national cultures) and some dimensions of those cultures (individualism-collectivism, independence-interdependence). He then…

Descriptors: Cultural Differences, Computation, Groups, Qualitative Research

Peer reviewed

Jameson, Susie G. – Mathematics in School, 1993

Describes two main categories of mental activity used by students in mathematics classes: mental mathematics and mathematical thought. Calls for the continuation of teaching mental mathematics and asks for the inclusion of mathematical thought in the national curricula. (MKR)

Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Elementary Secondary Education, Estimation (Mathematics), Foreign Countries

Washington, Ernest D. – 1991

An interpretation is provided of the philosopher L. Wittgenstein's analyses of mental states. The theoretical implications of these analyses for cognitive development and qualitatively oriented researchers are discussed. The mental states examined are: (1) pain; (2) remembering; (3) calculating/adding; (4) following a rule; and (5) reading.…

Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Games, Memory

Peer reviewed

Plunkett, Stuart – Mathematics in School, 1979

It is suggested that the reasons for teaching the standard written algorithms for calculations are not out of date. Alternative algorithms, such as mental algorithms, calculators, and nonstandard written methods, are discussed. (MP)

Descriptors: Algorithms, Calculators, Computation, Elementary Education

Peer reviewed

Welling, Hans – Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1994

The ability of some individuals with mental retardation to identify prime numbers despite their lack of necessary arithmetical skills is discussed. The article suggests that a distinction between prime and nonprime numbers can be made by utilizing the tendency of visual perception to be symmetrically organized. (Author/DB)

Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Computation, Exceptional Persons, Mathematics

Peer reviewed

Treffers, Adrian – Educational Studies in Mathematics, 1991

The problem of innumeracy in general and at the primary school level in particular is attributed to a structuralist design of instruction emphasizing an algorithmic approach to arithmetic. Offered is an alternative learning approach developing arithmetic as an informal context-bound activity tied to mental arithmetic and estimation. (MDH)

Descriptors: Arithmetic, Cognitive Processes, Concept Formation, Elementary Education

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