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Ortiz, Enrique – International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 2014
Students start to memorize arithmetic facts from early elementary school mathematics activities. Their fluency or lack of fluency with these facts could affect their efforts as they carry out mental calculations as adults. This study investigated participants' levels of brain activation and possible reasons for these levels as they solved…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Arithmetic, Problem Solving, Measurement Equipment
Ortiz, Enrique – Online Submission, 2010
The purpose of this study was to analyze participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed arithmetic mental calculations using Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS). A central issue in cognitive neuroscience involves the study of how the human brain encodes and…
Descriptors: Topography, Mental Computation, Memorization, Brain
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Fisher, Elaine Cerrato; Roy, George; Reeves, Charles – Teaching Children Mathematics, 2013
Mrs. Fisher's class was learning about arithmetic functions by pretending to operate real-world "function machines" (Reeves 2006). Functions are a unifying mathematics topic, and a great deal of emphasis is placed on understanding them in prekindergarten through grade 12 (Kilpatrick and Izs├ík 2008). In its Algebra Content Standard, the…
Descriptors: Arithmetic, Mathematics Instruction, Mathematical Concepts, Tables (Data)