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Paliwal, Veena; Baroody, Arthur J.; Reid, Erin E.; Purpura, David J. – Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2012
The primary purpose of the study was to determine if computer-based training programs promoted fluent and flexible use of reasoning strategies to solve addition problems using different tasks. Specifically, does participation in strategy training result in the fluent application of the target strategy on a traditional mental arithmetic task? Does…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Arithmetic, Mental Computation, Mathematics Instruction
Baroody, Arthur J. – 1987
The study investigated whether 15 children (ages 6-21) with IQs from 31 to 66 could spontaneously invent more efficient calculational procedures and abstract basic arithmetic relationships after individualized tutoring in computation. Experimental subjects were given training that focused on accurate computation but specific relationships and…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Computation, Discovery Learning, Elementary Secondary Education
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Baroody, Arthur J. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 1987
Kindergartners appeared to differ in their readiness to use a concrete counting strategy for addition. Many persisted in counting with objects. Mental counting strategies were sequenced. (MNS)
Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Computation
Baroody, Arthur J. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1996
An experimental group (n=13) and a control group (n=15) of children with mental retardation were both shown a basic concrete counting procedure. Over six months, the experimental group was given regular opportunities to practice computing sums. Many of them invented calculational short cuts. Results suggest that children with mental retardation…
Descriptors: Addition, Children, Cognitive Processes, Computation
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Baroody, Arthur J. – Educational Studies in Mathematics, 1988
A training experiment with 30 mentally handicapped children tested two models of mental-arithmetic development. Children's initial responses to a mental-addition task appeared to be the product of a mechanical prescription. Errors appeared to be more errors of method than of recall. (MNS)
Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Processes, Educational Research, Elementary Education
Baroody, Arthur J.; Gannon, Kathleen E. – 1983
Addition strategies used by 36 kindergarten children were examined. Children were given written stimuli (such as "2+5" and "3+7") during two sessions taking place a week apart. Results indicated that once children came to rely on mental addition strategies, they often quickly invented more economical procedures to compute sums. Also confirmed was…
Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Processes, Computation, Instruction
Baroody, Arthur J.; Ginsburg, Herbert P. – 1984
The study examined the effectiveness of a tutoring program on counting and number skills for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) and educable mentally retarded (EMR) students (5-14 years old). Experimental Ss received individualized instruction based on counting games while control Ss received instruction on objectives not related to counting.…
Descriptors: Computation, Elementary Education, Mild Mental Retardation, Moderate Mental Retardation
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Baroody, Arthur J. – Learning and Instruction, 1993
Using R. S. Siegler's retrieval-required task, 19 male and 22 female third graders were examined before they had been introduced to multiplication in school. Examination of error patterns suggests that the basic assumptions of the distribution-of-associations model need to be tested directly and that the retrieval-required task confounds retrieved…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students, Error Patterns
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
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Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E. – American Educational Research Journal, 2013
In a 9-month training experiment, 64 first graders with a risk factor were randomly assigned to computer-assisted structured discovery of the add-1 rule (e.g., the sum of 7 + 1 is the number after "seven" when we count), unstructured discovery learning of this regularity, or an active-control group. Planned contrasts revealed that the…
Descriptors: Prerequisites, Risk, Discovery Learning, Control Groups
Baroody, Arthur J. – Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 1986
The study examined basic counting competencies, difficulties, skill progressions, and variation among 36 moderately retarded and 64 mildly retarded students (ages 5-14). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated deficiencies in basic counting competencies and systematic oral- and object-counting errors. Striking individual differences in…
Descriptors: Achievement Rating, Arithmetic, Comparative Testing, Computation