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Ashcraft, Mark H. – Mathematical Cognition, 1995
Presents a historical overview and summary of research conducted on simple arithmetic in the past 20 years. Presents two seemingly different directions in current research, one on the role of working memory in mental arithmetic and one on the possible cognitive consequences of mathematics anxiety. Contains 108 references. (MKR)
Descriptors: Arithmetic, Educational Research, Elementary Education, Mathematics Anxiety
Ashcraft, Mark H.; And Others – 1980
Research on the structures and processes involved in simple mental arithmetic is reviewed. Results suggest that mental arithmetic is a memory retrieval phenomenon, which develops with the experiences of elementary school and can be understood in general as retrieval from organized network representations. Simple mental addition with basic facts…
Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Processes, College Students, Elementary Education
Ashcraft, Mark H.; Hamann, Mary Sue – 1982
Students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 were tested in a two-part investigation of simple and complex mental addition (with college students as a reference point). One session involved a normal reaction time task in which children made true/false judgments about a series of addition examples. The other session involved a verbal protocol interview, the…
Descriptors: Addition, Cognitive Processes, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education
Ashcraft, Mark H.; And Others – 1981
Students in grades 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and college were timed as they produced the answers to simple addition problems or verified a given problem as true or false. First graders clearly relied on a counting process for their performance, as advanced by the Groen and Parkman "min" (for minimum addend) model. Third grade appears to be a…
Descriptors: Addition, Arithmetic, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes
Ashcraft, Mark H. – 1983
This report describes a simulation of adults' retrieval of arithmetic facts from a network-based memory representation. The goals of the simulation project are to: demonstrate in specific form the nature of a spreading activation model of mental arithmetic; account for three important reaction time effects observed in laboratory investigations;…
Descriptors: Addition, Adult Learning, Arithmetic, Cognitive Development
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Koshmider, John W.; Ashcraft, Mark H. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1991
In one experiment, subjects from third grade through college relied on memory retrieval rather than on counting to solve multiplication problems. An effect of confusing problems on error rates and reaction times indicated the activation of related information. In a second experiment, subjects demonstrated automaticity of fact retrieval on simple…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, College Students, Computation, Elementary School Students
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Hamann, Mary Sue; Ashcraft, Mark H. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1985
First, fourth, seventh, and tenth graders were timed when solving simple and complex addition problems, then were presented similar problems in untimed interviews. Manipulation of confusion between addition and multiplication, where multiplication answers were given to addition problems (3 + 4 = 12) indicated an interrelatedness of these…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Arithmetic, Cognitive Processes, Elementary School Students
Ashcraft, Mark H. – 1985
Described in the context of a computer simulation are highlights of a program of research focusing on the storage of mathematics problem solving information in young children's memory and the development of such knowledge structures in older children. Specifically discussed are the problem size effect, the network nature of the memory…
Descriptors: Arithmetic, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Computer Simulation