ERIC Number: ED155074
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1977
Marx and Dahrendorf on Income Inequality, Class Consciousness and Class Conflict: An Empirical Test.
Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan
The issue addressed by this paper is the lack of empirical research on the class theories of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf. In order to bridge this gap, data are analyzed on the theoretical and statistical implications of Marx's theory (which focuses on ownership of the means of production) and Dahrendorf's theory (which focuses on authority in the workplace). It is hypothesized that Marx's and Dahrendorf's class models are more relevant to contemporary stratification theory than is generally realized by researchers. A model is constructed based on quantitative notions of stratification by sociologists Peter Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan. The basic Blau-Duncan model measured American occupational structure in terms of education, occupational status, number of siblings, personal income, job satisfaction, union membership, and class identification. For the present study, data were gathered from National Opinion Research Center surveys in the United States and Great Britain from 1973-76. Subjects were asked about Blau-Duncan stratification variables and about broader socio-political attitudes. Responses were compared to Marx's and Dahrendorf's predictions for income inequality, class consciousness, and class conflict, and then were analyzed according to the Blau-Duncan analytical framework. Findings indicated that Marx's and Dahrendorf's models have (1) important independent effects on income of male workers, and (2) substantial effects on class consciousness and conflict. The conclusion is that the theoretical traditions of Marx and Dahrendorf and the empirical research tradition of the Blau-Duncan status stratification model can be combined to increase understanding of stratification and its consequences. (Author/DB)
Descriptors: Authoritarianism, Conflict, Data Analysis, Economic Factors, Economic Opportunities, Employed Women, Family Income, Group Membership, Income, Models, Occupational Aspiration, Occupational Surveys, Political Attitudes, Poverty, Research Needs, Social Class, Social Differences, Social Science Research, Social Structure, Socioeconomic Influences, Socioeconomic Status, Status, Surveys, Theories
Publication Type: Books
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Authoring Institution: Center for Policy Research, New York, NY.