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ERIC Number: EJ897297
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Oct
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0016-9862
Modeling Outcomes with Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model
McBee, Matthew
Gifted Child Quarterly, v54 n4 p314-320 Oct 2010
In gifted education research, it is common for outcome variables to exhibit strong floor or ceiling effects due to insufficient range of measurement of many instruments when used with gifted populations. Common statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance, linear regression) produce biased estimates when such effects are present. In practice, it is frequent for researchers to ignore ceiling effects and proceed with traditional analysis. However, the problems caused by ceiling effects are not without possible solutions. This Methodological Brief describes a variation of multiple regression, called the Tobit model, which is capable of correct inference when floor or ceiling effects are present. A brief simulation study illustrates the performance of the Tobit model with a dataset exhibiting a ceiling effect. (Contains 2 notes, 1 table, and 1 figure.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A