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Bryan, Christopher J.; Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M. – Child Development, 2014
Can a subtle linguistic cue that invokes the self motivate children to help? In two experiments, 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 149) were exposed to the idea of "being a helper" (noun condition) or "helping" (verb condition). Noun wording fosters the perception that a behavior reflects an identity--the kind of person one is.…
Descriptors: Young Children, Helping Relationship, Cues, Motivation Techniques
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Brosseau-Liard, Patricia E.; Birch, Susan A. J. – Child Development, 2011
Previous research has demonstrated that preschoolers can use situation-specific (e.g., visual access) and person-specific (e.g., prior accuracy) cues to infer what others know. The present studies investigated whether 4- and 5-year-olds appreciate the differential informativeness of these types of cues. In Experiment 1 (N = 50), children used…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Cues, Accuracy, Learning
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Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M. – Child Development, 2013
Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…
Descriptors: Group Membership, Preschool Children, Motivation, Group Activities
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Wagner, Laura; Greene-Havas, Maia; Gillespie, Rebecca – Child Development, 2010
For socially appropriate communication, speakers must command a variety of linguistic styles, or "registers", that vary according to social context and social relationships. This study examined preschool children's ability to use a speaker's register choice to infer the identity of their addressee. Four-year-olds could draw correct inferences…
Descriptors: Metalinguistics, Preschool Children, Interpersonal Communication, Social Environment
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Apperly, Ian. A.; Williams, Emily; Williams, Joelle – Child Development, 2004
In 4 experiments 120 three-to four-year-old non readers were asked the identity of a symbolic representation as it appeared with different objects. Consistent with Bialystok (2000), many children judged the identity of written words to vary according to the object with which they appeared but few made such errors with recognizable pictures.…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Preschool Children, Symbolic Learning, Pattern Recognition
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Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Nickerson, Kim – Child Development, 2002
Examined the association between parent racial socialization and child competence among African American preschoolers. Found that strong racial identity and ethnic cultural enrichment at home were linked to higher factual knowledge and better developed problem-solving skills, as well as fewer problem behaviors. (JPB)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Behavior Problems, Black Attitudes, Blacks
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Taylor, Marjorie; Flavel, John H. – Child Development, 1984
Two studies with three-year-old children tested the hypothesis that, whereas errors of phenomenism predominate when children are asked about objects' real and apparent properties, errors of intellectual realism predominate when children are asked about objects' real and apparent identities. Results provided some support for the property-identity…
Descriptors: Comprehension, Error Patterns, Hypothesis Testing, Preschool Children
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Field, Dorothy – Child Development, 1981
In a replication study, children 3 and 4 years old were given verbal rule training in order to probe the importance of identity, reversibility, and compensation explanations in training number and length concepts. Among the results, as before, identity was found to be the most significant factor in conservation acquisition. (Author/RH)
Descriptors: Age Differences, Concept Formation, Conservation (Concept), Number Concepts
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Bernstein, Anne C.; Cowan, Philip A. – Child Development, 1975
Twenty children, 3-12 years old, were given a newly constructed interview on their concepts of human reproduction (social causality), in conjunction with Piaget-type tasks assessing physical conservation-identity, physical causality, and a new social identity task. The children's concepts of human reproduction appeared to proceed through a…
Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Cognitive Development, Conservation (Concept), Developmental Psychology
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Weinraub, Marsha; And Others – Child Development, 1984
The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)
Descriptors: Labeling (of Persons), Nonverbal Communication, Perception, Predictor Variables
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Krasnor, Linda Rose; Rubin, Kenneth H. – Child Development, 1983
The frequency and distribution of social problem-solving strategies, goals, targets, and outcomes were coded during preschoolers' free play. Flexibility and persistence in problem-solving sequences were examined, and the relative importance of strategies, goals, targets, and the identity of the problem solver in predicting social problem-solving…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Preschool Children, Preschool Education, Problem Solving
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Kuhn, Deanna; And Others – Child Development, 1978
An instrument developed to assess beliefs about male and female attributes was administered to 72 preschool children. Results indicated that children as young as 2 years of age possess substantial knowledge of sex role stereotypes and that this knowledge is highly correlated with comprehension of gender identity as an irreversible characteristic.…
Descriptors: Measurement Instruments, Measurement Techniques, Preschool Children, Research
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Litrownik, Alan J.; And Others – Child Development, 1978
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Conservation (Concept), Handicapped Children, Mental Retardation
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Grace, Diana M.; David, Barbara J.; Ryan, Michelle K. – Child Development, 2008
Whereas traditional theories of gender development have focused on individualistic paths, recent analyses have argued for a more social categorical approach to children's understanding of gender. Using a modeling paradigm based on K. Bussey and A. Bandura (1984), 3 experiments (N = 62, N = 32, and N = 64) examined preschoolers' (M age = 52.9…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Imitation, Attention, Classification
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Martin, Carol Lynn; Little, Jane K. – Child Development, 1990
Ability to identify the sexes, understanding of gender group membership, temporal stability of gender, and gender consistency over situational changes were assessed in a sample of 61 boys and girls of 3-5 years of age. Findings suggested that only a rudimentary understanding of gender is acquired by children before the sex-typing process begins.…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Cognitive Structures, Comprehension, Preschool Children