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Apperly, Ian. A.; Williams, Emily; Williams, Joelle – Child Development, 2004
In 4 experiments 120 three-to four-year-old non readers were asked the identity of a symbolic representation as it appeared with different objects. Consistent with Bialystok (2000), many children judged the identity of written words to vary according to the object with which they appeared but few made such errors with recognizable pictures.…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Preschool Children, Symbolic Learning, Pattern Recognition
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Ruble, Diane N.; Taylor, Lisa J.; Cyphers, Lisa; Greulich, Faith K.; Lurye, Leah E.; Shrout, Patrick E. – Child Development, 2007
Kohlberg's (1966) hypothesis that the attainment of gender constancy motivates children to attend to gender norms was reevaluated by examining these links in relation to age. Ninety-four 3- to 7-year-old children were interviewed to assess whether and how constancy mediates age-related changes in gender-related beliefs. As expected, results…
Descriptors: Sexual Identity, Childhood Attitudes, Social Behavior, Child Development