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Rong, Xue Lan; Brown, Frank – Education and Urban Society, 2002
Synthesizes research on the life experiences of Caribbean and African black immigrants and their children and their incorporation into U.S. society and education. Examines triple disadvantage versus model blacks; socialization and racial identity development of black immigrants; and black immigrants and American blacks. Analyzes…
Descriptors: Acculturation, Black Students, Cultural Differences, Diversity (Student)
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Webb, Florence R. – Education and Urban Society, 1989
Argues against the notion that all school districts should be the same size. Research on fiscal efficiency and school effectiveness does not express a consensus regarding the long-term effects or organizational implications of district size, and the country still has a range of district types. There should be more research on community identity.…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Educational History, Educational Policy, Educational Research
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Mallett, Christopher A. – Education and Urban Society, 2017
This conceptual article synthesizes the empirical research on punitive environmental norms of schools and the disproportionate effects on certain child and adolescent groups, particularly within urban schools. This involvement has come to be known as the school-to-prison pipeline. The young people affected by harsh school discipline protocols and…
Descriptors: Disproportionate Representation, Children, Adolescents, At Risk Persons