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Showing 16 to 30 of 54 results Save | Export
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Plath, Jenny Aino; Felsenberg, Johannes; Eisenhardt, Dorothea – Learning & Memory, 2012
During extinction animals experience that the previously learned association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) no longer holds true. Accordingly, the conditioned response (CR) to the CS decreases. This decrease of the CR can be reversed by presentation of the US alone following extinction, a phenomenon termed…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Entomology, Stimuli, Responses
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Hupbach, Almut; Hardt, Oliver; Gomez, Rebecca; Nadel, Lynn – Learning & Memory, 2008
Understanding the dynamics of memory change is one of the current challenges facing cognitive neuroscience. Recent animal work on memory reconsolidation shows that memories can be altered long after acquisition. When reactivated, memories can be modified and require a restabilization (reconsolidation) process. We recently extended this finding to…
Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Neuropsychology, Animals, Experiments
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Ji, Jinzhao; Maren, Stephen – Learning & Memory, 2005
There is a growing body of evidence that the hippocampus is critical for context-dependent memory retrieval. In the present study, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats to examine the role of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the context-specific expression of fear memory after extinction (i.e., renewal). Pre-training electrolytic lesions of…
Descriptors: Fear, Classical Conditioning, Memory, Neurological Impairments
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Diede, Nathaniel T.; Bugg, Julie M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Classic theories of cognitive control conceptualized controlled processes as slow, strategic, and willful, with automatic processes being fast and effortless. The context-specific proportion compatibility (CSPC) effect, the reduction in the compatibility effect in a context (e.g., location) associated with a high relative to low likelihood of…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Correlation, Conflict, Context Effect
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Godden, D. R.; Baddeley, A. D. – British Journal of Psychology, 1975
In a free recall experiment, divers learn lists of words in two natural environments: on dry land and underwater, and recalled the words in either the environment of original learning, or in the alternative environment. A subsequent experiment related these actions to context-dependent memory. (Editor/RK)
Descriptors: Environmental Influences, Memory, Psychological Studies, Recall (Psychology)
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Meiser, Thorsten; Rummel, Jan; Fleig, Hanna – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Pseudocontingencies are inferences about correlations in the environment that are formed on the basis of statistical regularities like skewed base rates or varying base rates across environmental contexts. Previous research has demonstrated that pseudocontingencies provide a pervasive mechanism of inductive inference in numerous social judgment…
Descriptors: Inferences, Correlation, Decision Making, Probability
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Brembs, Bjorn; Wiener, Jan – Learning & Memory, 2006
In a permanently changing environment, it is by no means an easy task to distinguish potentially important events from negligible ones. Yet, to survive, every animal has to continuously face that challenge. How does the brain accomplish this feat? Building on previous work in "Drosophila melanogaster" visual learning, we have developed an…
Descriptors: Memory, Methods, Cues, Visual Stimuli
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Revillo, Damian A.; Trebucq, Gastón; Paglini, Maria G.; Arias, Carlos – Learning & Memory, 2016
Although it is currently accepted that the extinction effect reflects new context-dependent learning, this is not so clear during infancy, because some studies did not find recovery of the extinguished conditioned response (CR) in rodents during this ontogenetic stage. However, recent studies have shown the return of an extinguished CR in infant…
Descriptors: Fear, Conditioning, Animals, Olfactory Perception
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Mishra, Jennifer; Backlin, William – Psychology of Music, 2007
Three experiments investigated whether musical memory was context dependent. Instrumental musicians memorized music in one context and recalled in either the same or a different context. Contexts included atypical performing environments (Experiment 1: lobby/conference room) or commonly encountered environments (Experiment 2: practice room,…
Descriptors: Music, Context Effect, Musicians, Musical Instruments
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Amaya, Kenneth A.; Stott, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Kyle S. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Motivationally attractive cues can draw in behavior in a phenomenon termed incentive salience. Incentive cue attraction is an important model for animal models of drug seeking and relapse. One question of interest is the extent to which the pursuit of motivationally attractive cues is related to the value of the paired outcome or can become…
Descriptors: Cues, Habituation, Motivation Techniques, Incentives
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Meyer, Mariah A. A.; Corcoran, Kevin A.; Chen, Helen J.; Gallego, Sonia; Li, Guanguan; Tiruveedhula, Veda V.; Cook, James M.; Radulovic, Jelena – Learning & Memory, 2017
Retrieval of fear memories can be state-dependent, meaning that they are best retrieved if the brain states at encoding and retrieval are similar. Such states can be induced by activating extrasynaptic ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR) with the broad a-subunit activator gaboxadol. However, the circuit mechanisms and specific subunits…
Descriptors: Neurology, Brain, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Fear
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Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M. – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2011
In this study, 2.5-, 3-, and 4-year-olds (N=108) participated in a novel noun generalization task in which background context was manipulated. During the learning phase of each trial, children were presented with exemplars in one or multiple background contexts. At the test, children were asked to generalize to a novel exemplar in either the same…
Descriptors: Age, Memory, Generalization, Age Differences
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Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C. – Psychological Review, 2009
J. S. Bowers, M. F. Damian, and C. J. Davis (2009) critiqued the computational model of serial order memory put forth in M. Botvinick and D. C. Plaut (2006), purporting to show that the model does not generalize in a way that people do. They attributed this supposed failure to the model's dependence on context-dependent representations,…
Descriptors: Serial Ordering, Short Term Memory, Computation, Models
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Matthews, William J. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2013
This article concerns the effect of context on people's judgments about sequences of chance outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether sequences were produced by random, mechanical processes (such as a roulette wheel) or skilled human action (such as basketball shots). Sequences with lower alternation rates were judged more likely to…
Descriptors: Experimental Psychology, Probability, Prediction, Context Effect
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Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2012
Stimuli that are processed fluently tend to be regarded as more familiar and are more likely to be classified as old on a recognition test compared with less fluent stimuli. Recently it was shown that the standard relationship between fluency and positive recognition judgments can be reversed if participants are trained that previously studied…
Descriptors: Familiarity, Recall (Psychology), Recognition (Psychology), Feedback (Response)
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