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Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E. – Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 2013
The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…
Descriptors: Genetic Disorders, Congenital Impairments, Biochemistry, Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
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Stanford, Kristin I.; Goodyear, Laurie J. – Advances in Physiology Education, 2014
Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial…
Descriptors: Exercise, Diabetes, Muscular Strength, Prevention
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Ji, Li Li – Advances in Physiology Education, 2015
Skeletal muscle contraction is associated with the production of ROS due to altered O[subscript 2] distribution and flux in the cell. Despite a highly efficient antioxidant defense, a small surplus of ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, may serve as signaling molecules to stimulate cellular adaptation to reach new homeostasis largely…
Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Exercise, Exercise Physiology, Older Adults
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Wong, Lee-Jun C. – Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 2010
Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disorders (RCDs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases because of the fact that protein components of the RC are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and are essential in all cells. In addition, the biogenesis, structure, and function of mitochondria, including DNA…
Descriptors: Genetics, Molecular Structure, Diseases, Genetic Disorders
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Tang, Bor Luen; Teng, Felicia Yu Hsuan – Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 2005
The process of protein biogenesis culminates in its correct targeting to specific subcellular locations where it serves a function. Contemporary molecular and cell biology investigations often involve the exogenous expression of epitope- or fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant molecules as well as subsequent analysis of protein-protein…
Descriptors: Topology, Scientific Concepts, Biochemistry, Cytology
Dassanayake, Maheshi – ProQuest LLC, 2009
Mangroves represent phylogenetically diverse taxa in tropical coastal terrestrial habitats. They are extremophiles, evolutionarily adapted to tolerate flooding, anoxia, high temperatures, wind, and high and extremely variable salt conditions in typically resource-poor environments. The genetic basis for these adaptations is, however, virtually…
Descriptors: Forestry, Ecology, Genetics, Physiology
Ihnken, Leigh Anne Furgerson – ProQuest LLC, 2009
Lantibiotics are cyclic peptides that exhibit a range of biological properties, including antimicrobial activity. They are ribosomally-synthesized as linear precursor peptides that consist of two regions, an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal propeptide (or structural) region. The structural region undergoes extensive enzyme-catalyzed…
Descriptors: Biochemistry, Chemistry, Organic Chemistry