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Spolsky, Bernard; And Others – 1983
The development of literacy in selected bilingual societies was investigated. Historical and comparative studies were conducted of medieval Jewish communities, the Navajo community, a northern New Mexico village, and the countries of Paraguay and Tonga. The goal of the case studies was to develop a model for the development of literacy in the…
Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Case Studies, Guarani
Spolsky, Bernard – 1970
This paper argues the case for the establishment of local affiliates of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). The author considers the process of language acquisition ("the central business of growing up and of becoming a useful member of society") and the role that both formal and informal education play in it. The…
Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Child Language, Community Cooperation
Spolsky, Bernard; And Others – 1970
English and Navajo language materials are described in this annotated bibliography of reading materials which is part of the Navajo Reading Study funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The English language materials were developed to teach Navajo children about their own culture and could be used to form the base for a curriculum in English for…
Descriptors: American Indians, Annotated Bibliographies, Cultural Background, English (Second Language)
Spolsky, Bernard – 1970
One of the central questions in the study of bilingualism is the degree to which it is possible for a group to maintain their language even when accepting other cultural values. There are numbers of cases of peoples who have managed to develop a modern industrial society without giving up their national language; this is difficult, but possible. A…
Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Schools, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism
Spolsky, Bernard; Holm, Wayne – 1971
The present report is an expanded version of an earlier paper by the authors. Summing up last year's language maintenance study, it goes on to place the Study in its general context as a contribution to Navajo literacy. Following the report is a complete listing of the publications of the Study to date, with ED numbers and other information…
Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingualism, Language Role, Language Usage
Spolsky, Bernard; And Others – 1971
In keeping with the objective of the Navajo Reading Study, to investigate the feasibility and effect of teaching Navajo children to read their own language first, it was decided that more needs to be known about Navajo children and the language they know. Thus, between October 1969 and June 1970, 22 adult Navajo interviewers recorded free…
Descriptors: American Indians, Child Language, Computational Linguistics, Graphemes
Spolsky, Bernard; And Others – 1971
As part of a study of the feasibility and effect of teaching Navajo children to read their own language first, a word count collected by 22 Navajo adults interviewing over 200 Navajo 6-year-olds was undertaken. This report discusses the word count and the interview texts in terms of (1) number of sentences, (2) number of words, (3) number of…
Descriptors: American Indians, Citations (References), Graphemes, Language Research
Spolsky, Bernard – 1971
The purpose of this study was to determine 6-year-old Navajo children's relative proficiency in Navaho and English upon entering school. A first study on this topic was done in 1969. In the present study, data were obtained for 3,653 of the 4,645 children who were 6 years old in 1970. This study used a teacher questionnaire which was checked for…
Descriptors: American Indians, Children, Citations (References), English (Second Language)
Spolsky, Bernard – 1971
Two centers of diffusion of the English language are (1) schools on the Navajo Reservation and (2) off-Reservation towns; these diffusion centers were studied to examine factors involved in language shift, especially in terms of internal (on-Reservation) and external (off-Reservation) contacts with English. Teachers in schools with Navajo pupils…
Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Children, Citations (References)
Spolsky, Bernard – 1972
The Navajo Reading Study has been prepared for a volume describing literacy projects in the indigenous languages of the Americas. In 1969-70, 2 surveys were made to determine the present language situation of 6-year-old Navajo children. For each survey, a simple questionnaire was sent to all teachers with Navajo 6-year-olds in their classes.…
Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Students, Diachronic Linguistics, Elementary School Students
Spolsky, Bernard; And Others – 1969
English and Navajo language materials are described in this bibliography of reading materials primarily for elementary school students. The English language materials were developed to teach Navajo children about their own culture and could be used to form the base for a curriculum in English for Navajo students. The Navajo language materials were…
Descriptors: American Indians, Bibliographies, Cultural Background, Elementary Education
Spolsky, Bernard – 1974
Bilingual education programs have been established in such Native American languages as Aleut, Yupik, Tlingit, Haida, Athabaskan, Cherokee, Lakota, Navajo, Papago, Pomo, Passamaquoddy, Seminole, Tewa, and Zuni. These programs include the: Choctaw Bilingual Education Program, Northern Cheyenne Bilingual Education Program, Lakota Bilingual Education…
Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Languages, American Indians, Bilingual Education
Kari, James; Spolsky, Bernard – 1973
This report discusses trends in the study of Athapaskan, concentrating on language maintenance and bilingualism. It presents both the potential richness and the actual poverty of studies of sociolinguistic aspects of the Athapaskan languages. Noted are two trends--(1) There is a greater interest among linguists in the studies of language in use:…
Descriptors: American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Language Enrichment
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Spolsky, Bernard; And Others – 1974
The model attempts to map all relevant factors onto a single integrated structure and to suggest some of the interaction lines. Based on a hexagonal figure, each side represents a set of factors which may have a bearing on, or be affected by, the bilingual program's operation in a particular situation--psychological, sociological, economic,…
Descriptors: American Indians, Bilingual Education, Community Involvement, Cultural Influences