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ERIC Number: EJ909509
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Feb
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1041-6080
Individual, Country and Societal Cluster Differences on Measures of Personality, Attitudes, Values, and Social Norms
Stankov, Lazar
Learning and Individual Differences, v21 n1 p55-66 Feb 2011
This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains--personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R], N = 1,600) and U.S. college students (N = 429). Total variability of each subscale was split into individual, country (45), and societal cluster (9 world regions) components using hierarchical linear modeling procedures. Individual variability accounted for between 67.69% and 96.43%, and country and societal clusters accounted for, on average, 11% of the total variance. Furthermore, cross-cultural effects attributable to country and societal clusters were less pronounced on measures of personality and values than they were on measures of social attitudes and social norms. A composite representing the conservatism dimension showed pronounced cultural differences (25% of total variance), and the pattern of means revealed that Europeans hold more liberal attitudes, values, and beliefs than people from other world regions. (Contains 4 tables and 5 figures.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Test of English as a Foreign Language