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Stanovich, Keith E. – Educational Psychologist, 2016
The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded in 2002 for work on judgment and decision-making tasks that are the operational measures of rational thought in cognitive science. Because assessments of intelligence (and similar tests of cognitive ability) are taken to be the quintessence of good thinking, it might be thought that such measures would…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Tests, Cognitive Science, Intelligence Tests
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Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F. – Teaching of Psychology, 2014
In this article the authors argue that distinguishing between rationality and intelligence helps explain how people can be, at the same time, intelligent and irrational (Stanovich, 2009). As such, researchers need to study separately the individual differences in cognitive skills that underlie intelligence and the individual differences in…
Descriptors: Intelligence, Responses, Cognitive Processes, Intelligence Quotient
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Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E. – Developmental Psychology, 2014
We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference…
Descriptors: Trend Analysis, Taxonomy, Cognitive Ability, Thinking Skills
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Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E. – Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2013
Background: Both performance-based and rating measures are commonly used to index executive function in clinical and neuropsychological assessments. They are intended to index the same broad underlying mental construct of executive function. The association between these two types of measures was investigated in the current article. Method and…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Performance Based Assessment, Rating Scales, Cognitive Tests
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Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E. – Developmental Review, 2011
Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…
Descriptors: Prediction, Cognitive Development, Theories, Task Analysis
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Macpherson, Robyn; Stanovich, Keith E. – Learning and Individual Differences, 2007
This study examined the predictors of belief bias in a formal reasoning paradigm (a syllogistic reasoning task) and myside bias in two informal reasoning paradigms (an argument generation task and an experiment evaluation task). Neither cognitive ability nor thinking dispositions predicted myside bias, but both cognitive ability and thinking…
Descriptors: Thinking Skills, Cognitive Ability, Logical Thinking, Models
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Stanovich, Keith E. – Learning Disability Quarterly, 2005
Imagine a current HMO that covered only the procedures and diseases recognized by the medical profession in 1950. The thought is ridiculous because in such a rapidly developing field as medicine, no one would expect practice to be frozen at the level of scientific knowledge attained 50 years ago. The author believes this is what has happened in…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Learning Disabilities, Reading Difficulties, Psychometrics
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West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2008
In this article, the authors argue that there are a range of effects usually studied within cognitive psychology that are legitimately thought of as aspects of critical thinking: the cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature. In a study of 793 student participants, the authors found that the ability to avoid these biases was…
Descriptors: Heuristics, Critical Thinking, Cognitive Psychology, Thinking Skills
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Stanovich, Keith E. – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2003
Discusses how research into the psychology of reading has been characterized by an emphasis on correspondence theories of truth rather than coherence, an emphasis on analytic reductionism rather than holism, an emphasis on probabilistic prediction, the search for robust-process explanations, and a concern for consilience. Presents some thoughts on…
Descriptors: Academic Discourse, Cognitive Processes, Higher Education, Reading
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Cunningham, Anne E.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Stanovich, Keith E.; Stanovich, Paula J. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2009
As teacher quality becomes a central issue in discussions of children's literacy, both researchers and policy makers alike express increasing concern with how teachers structure and allocate their lesson time for literacy-related activities as well as with what they know about reading development, processes, and pedagogy. The authors examined the…
Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Language Arts, Disabilities, Special Education Teachers
Stanovich, Paula J.; Stanovich, Keith E. – 2003
As professionals, teachers can become more effective and powerful by developing the skills to recognize scientifically based practice and, when the evidence is not available, use some basic research concepts to draw conclusions on their own. This paper offers a primer for those skills that will allow teachers to become independent evaluators of…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Education, Educational Improvement, Educational Quality
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Stringer, Ronald W.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E. – Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2004
In this study, we investigated the relationships between rapid naming of letters, digits and colours, and reading ability and executive function. We gave fifty-six grade three and four children rapid automatised naming tasks using letters and digits as stimuli, executive function measures including the Stroop task, a working memory task and the…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Memory, Reading Ability, Brain
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Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2002
The domain specificity and generality of an important critical thinking skill was examined by administering nine reasoning and decision-making tasks to 125 adults. Performance across tasks displayed considerable domain specificity, but five tasks displayed moderate convergence. Performance on tasks that displayed domain generality was more…
Descriptors: Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Style, Convergent Thinking, Critical Thinking
Stanovich, Keith E. – 2000
The last 25 years have seen tremendous advances in the study of the reading process and reading acquisition. The growing body of knowledge on the reading process and reading acquisition has applications to such important problems as the prevention of reading difficulties and the identification of effective instructional practices. This book…
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Instructional Effectiveness, Literacy, Reading
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Stringer, Ron; Stanovich, Keith E. – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2000
Finds a significant correlation between Reaction Time (RT) and reading ability; however, the zero-order correlation between RT and word recognition ability was largely due to variance shared with phonological awareness and general cognitive ability. Concludes RT explained almost no unique variance after phonological sensitivity and general…
Descriptors: Adults, Analysis of Covariance, Cognitive Ability, Higher Education
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