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Gottfredson, Denise C.; Fink, Carolyn M.; Graham, Nanette – American Educational Research Journal, 1994
Explores the causal nature of the association between grade repetition and later adolescent problem behaviors for 197 retained and 204 promoted African-American sixth and seventh graders in two urban middle schools. Regression analyses imply that retention reduced rebellious behavior in school and increased attachment to school. (SLD)
Descriptors: Adolescents, Attachment Behavior, Behavior Problems, Black Students