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Williamson, Lisa Ann – Teaching Tolerance, 2013
"You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…
Descriptors: Enrichment, Freedom, Social Action, Schools
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Hale, Jon N. – Journal of Social Studies Research, 2011
This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…
Descriptors: Achievement Gap, Civil Rights, Freedom, Democracy
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Hale, Jon N. – American Educational History Journal, 2007
During the summer of 1964, Mississippi communities and activists established forty-one "Freedom Schools" that served over two thousand students. The Mississippi Freedom Schools embodied a critical philosophy of education. Despite its grassroots orientation, the educational ideas espoused in the Freedom Schools did not necessarily…
Descriptors: Folk Schools, Freedom, Social Change, Educational Experience
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Agosto, Vonzell – Journal of Negro Education, 2008
Freedom Schools, which operated during 1964 after the collaborative efforts of several Civil Rights organizations, provided an opportunity to understand how students can drive the curriculum to meet individual and collective needs within a community. The presence and use of poetry throughout the Freedom Schools was mysterious, given that it is…
Descriptors: Civil Rights, Poetry, Cultural Education, Community Needs
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Etienne, Leslie – Peabody Journal of Education, 2013
The civil rights movement of the late 1950s and 1960s had a transformational effect on American society and on grassroots movements for social justice at home and abroad during that era and beyond. But much of the history of the push for racial equality in America is often told as if it is on a constant repetitive loop, when other accounts are…
Descriptors: Males, African Americans, Summer Programs, Freedom
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Logue, Jennifer – Philosophical Studies in Education, 2008
John Dewey's pragmatism and progressive education sought to nourish the democratic principles of critical thinking and collective social action, which he saw as central to democracy and threatened by what J├╝rgen Habermas would call the rise of "instrumental rationality." Dewey was concerned that traditional approaches to education…
Descriptors: Freedom, Intervention, Teaching Methods, Citizenship
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Chilcoat, George W.; Ligon, Jerry A. – Social Studies, 2001
Provides historical background about the Mississippi Freedom Schools that aimed to assist African American elementary and secondary students in 1964. Focuses on the questioning techniques that were based in progressive methods. Addresses discussion as a method, provides an example of a Freedom School discussion, and explores the implications for…
Descriptors: Black Education, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Educational Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education
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Rothschild, Mary Aickin – History of Education Quarterly, 1982
In 1964-65, Freedom Schools, staffed mostly by northern volunteers, were established for 11th grade Black students in Mississippi. The major goals of the summer schools were to give Blacks a broad intellectual and academic experience and to form a basis for statewide student action. (RM)
Descriptors: Activism, Civil Rights, Core Curriculum, Educational Objectives
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Perlstein, Daniel – History of Education Quarterly, 1990
Examines the Mississippi Freedom Schools, organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) during the 1964 summer, that were designed to empower Black students to transform society. Analyzes the schools' teaching practices based on student experiences and promoting self-discovery and expression. Identifies institutional limits in…
Descriptors: Activism, Black History, Civil Rights, Consciousness Raising
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Chilcoat, George W.; Ligon, Jerry A. – Theory and Research in Social Education, 1994
Reviews the social studies goal of citizenship education. Describes the goals, instructional techniques, evaluation methods, and classroom management strategies used in the Mississippi Freedom Schools during the middle 1960s. Contends that these schools could be used as a model for effective social studies instruction today. (CFR)
Descriptors: Black Education, Black History, Citizenship Education, Curriculum Development
Payne, Charles M. – 1997
Self-consciously activist education has a long history among African-Americans; however, it is one of the least well-understood aspects of African American struggle. This paper addresses one chapter in that history, the Freedom Schools that operated in Mississippi during the summer of 1964 and for a while thereafter. The schools were the creation…
Descriptors: Black Leadership, Black Power, Civil Rights, Cultural Awareness
ZINN, HOWARD – 1965
FOR 8 WEEKS IN THE SUMMER OF 1964, MORE THAN 2,000 NEGRO YOUNGSTERS, AVERAGING 15 YEARS OF AGE BUT RANGING FROM 6 TO 26 AND OLDER, WENT TO FREEDOM SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI. THE STUDENTS WERE TAUGHT BY TEACHERS WHO MET NO OFFICIAL QUALIFICATIONS. THEY ASSEMBLED IN CHURCH BASEMENTS OR ON THE STREETS. THEY CAME AND WENT WITHOUT ATTENDANCE RECORDS,…
Descriptors: Black Students, Community Action, Freedom Schools, Social Change
Bigelow, Bill, Ed. – Rethinking Schools, Ltd, 2004
With more than 180,000 copies in print, the first volume of "Rethinking Our Classrooms" broke new ground, providing teachers with hands-on ways to promote values of community, justice, and equality--and build students' academic skills. This companion volume continues in that tradition, presenting a rich new collection of…
Descriptors: Social Justice, United States History, School Culture, Females