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UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2004
This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) Newsletter, published quarterly in English and French, focuses on the impact of decentralization of education management on education outcomes in Africa. It contains the following articles: (1) Decentralisation and School Improvement: A Comment on Research in West…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Change, Administrative Organization, Educational Administration
de Guzman, Sylvia – Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education, 2007
A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that…
Descriptors: Expenditures, Elementary Education, Foreign Countries, Developing Nations
Arnove, Robert F., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed. – Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007
This book brings together many of the outstanding scholars in the field of comparative and international education to provide new perspectives on the dynamic interplay of global, national, and local forces as they shape the functioning and outcomes of education systems in specific contexts. Various chapters in the book call for a rethinking of the…
Descriptors: Global Approach, Foreign Countries, Social Change, Outcomes of Education
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Choi, Sheena – International Journal of Educational Reform, 2004
A troubling aspect of international schools is their dearth of academic discourse. Mark Bray has observed that two characteristics of international schools contribute to such a lack of research: first, the smallness of the sector; and second, and more important, the fact that such schools lie outside the mainstream local education system, serving…
Descriptors: Academic Discourse, International Schools, Misconceptions, Global Approach
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Zhang, Wei; Bray, Mark – Oxford Review of Education, 2018
The global expansion of mass schooling has greatly increased opportunities for low-income families, and governments have devoted much effort to equalising access and quality in education systems. Alongside regular schooling, the so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring has grown rapidly across the world. The fact that…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Tutoring, Socioeconomic Influences, Equal Education
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Zhang, Wei; Bray, Mark – Journal of Education Policy, 2017
With its shift to a market economy gathering speed from the 1990s, the Chinese Government embarked on an agenda that brought neoliberal forces into almost all sectors including education. The policies underpinned China's spectacular economic growth, but in education have had consequences that arguably are problematic. Drawing on a mixed-methods…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Neoliberalism, Public Policy, Economic Progress
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Liu, Junyan; Bray, Mark – Education Economics, 2017
Private tutoring has expanded and intensified in China. However, no government statistical data or other empirical studies fully capture its extent and characteristics. This paper analyses private tutoring received by students in Grades 1-12 as indicated by a nationwide representative survey entitled China Family Panel Studies. The paper employs a…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Supplementary Education, Tutoring, National Surveys
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Mahmud, Rafsan; Bray, Mark – Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2017
Private supplementary tutoring has long existed in Bangladesh, as elsewhere in the world, but in recent decades has become much more visible. Much tutoring "shadows" or reproduces formal schooling as fee-based academic teaching outside school hours. This paper focuses on school factors that shape demand for private supplementary tutoring…
Descriptors: Tutoring, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction
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Bray, Mark – Asia Pacific Education Review, 2014
Recent decades have brought global expansion of private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education. Such tutoring consumes considerable resources and is usually viewed by participating households as an investment that will increase the recipients' academic achievements. However, research on the effectiveness of tutoring has…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Tutoring, Instructional Effectiveness, Supplementary Education
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Wang, Dan; Bray, Mark – Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 2016
In many settings a perplexing scenario is unfolding in which school systems claim to move towards whole-person development while students and parents run in the opposite direction of narrowly defined academic achievement enhanced by private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education because much of its content mimics…
Descriptors: Social Stratification, Teacher Attitudes, Tutoring, Foreign Countries
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Kwo, Ora; Bray, Mark – Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2014
While research is increasingly available on the scale and costs of private supplementary tutoring, less information focuses on its pedagogical dimensions. This paper addresses patterns in Hong Kong. The paper begins with the quantitative picture solicited through questionnaires for students in Grades 9 and 12, and then turns to data from…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Secondary School Students, Tutoring, Questionnaires
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Chan, Claudia; Bray, Mark – Journal of Curriculum Studies, 2014
Around the world, increasing numbers of students receive after-school private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring may be provided through informal channels or by companies, and it may be received one-to-one, in small groups or in large classes. The tutoring is commonly called shadow education since its content mimics that of regular schooling.…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Tutoring, Commercialization, Supplementary Education
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Bray, Mark; Manzon, Maria – Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2014
The institutional framework of the field of comparative education has developed significantly in recent decades. One manifestation of development has been the establishment and activities of professional societies. This paper focuses on 12 societies that operate in Asia and the Pacific. Some of these societies have long histories while others are…
Descriptors: Comparative Education, Foreign Countries, Periodicals, Conferences (Gatherings)
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Bray, Mark; Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa – Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 2015
An established literature draws on ecological concepts to analyze interrelationships within education structures and processes, and the impact of shifting balances. Private supplementary tutoring--relatively new in ecosystems of education around the world--is creating significant changes in relationships, particularly as they concern teachers'…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Tutoring, Tutors, Individual Instruction
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Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora – Oxford Review of Education, 2013
Most governments, at an official level, espouse the principles of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Among its statements is that education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Yet while the façade of government education systems presents an image that instruction is free of charge, families across the…
Descriptors: Social Justice, Civil Rights, Tutoring, Costs
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