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ERIC Number: EJ1028885
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0936-2835
Teacher-Directed Decoding Practice with Manipulative Letters and Word Reading Skill Development of Struggling First Grade Students
Pullen, Paige C.; Lane, Holly B.
Exceptionality, v22 n1 p1-16 2014
We compared the effects of two approaches to decoding on the word reading skills of struggling first-grade students: decontextualized, teacher directed decoding practice with manipulative letters and embedded, incidental decoding practice. Participants were 98 students at risk for reading disability. We randomly assigned participants to three groups: (1) treatment, (2) comparison, and (3) control. The treatment group received 30 sessions of small-group instruction using manipulative letters to practice decoding skills. The comparison group received the same small-group reading instruction without the additional decoding practice. The control group did not receive supplemental small-group instruction. Analyses indicated that students who received the additional decoding practice with manipulative letters scored significantly better on phonological awareness, decoding, and word recognition skills than students who received incidental decoding practice.
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery