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Stockard, Jean – Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 2010
Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds, relative to more advantaged peers, in later elementary grades, the so-called "fourth-grade slump." This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school…
Descriptors: Urban Schools, Reading Achievement, Economically Disadvantaged, Standardized Tests
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What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Success for All" ("SFA")[R] is a comprehensive school reform model that includes a reading, writing, and oral language development program for students in pre-kindergarten through grade eight. Its underlying premise is that all children can and should be reading at grade level by the end of third grade and then remain at grade…
Descriptors: Elementary Education, Reading Instruction, Tutoring, Intervention