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Costa, Lara-Jeane C.; Edwards, Crystal N.; Hooper, Stephen R. – Learning Disability Quarterly, 2016
This longitudinal study was conducted to determine (a) the rate of co-occurrence of reading disabilities (RDs) in a writing disability (WD) population of students followed from first grade to fourth grade and (b) the cognitive burden that is assumed by having a WD and a RD (WD + RD). The sample included 137 first-grade students from a single…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Writing Difficulties, Reading Difficulties, Multiple Disabilities
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Hedges, Larry V.; Hedberg, E. C. – Evaluation Review, 2013
Background: Cluster-randomized experiments that assign intact groups such as schools or school districts to treatment conditions are increasingly common in educational research. Such experiments are inherently multilevel designs whose sensitivity (statistical power and precision of estimates) depends on the variance decomposition across levels.…
Descriptors: Correlation, Multivariate Analysis, Educational Experiments, Statistical Analysis