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Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Kudo, Milagros – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2017
This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2,…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Bilingualism, Reading Difficulties, Spanish Speaking
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Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Hall, Erin K. – Educational Psychology, 2013
In order to examine the effect of the home language on the spelling development in English in children who are learning English as a second language (ESL learners), it is best to directly compare groups of ESL learners from various home language backgrounds. This study compared the oral language, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling…
Descriptors: Predictor Variables, Spelling, Vocabulary, Regression (Statistics)