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ERIC Number: EJ970681
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 21
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0014-4029
Mathematics Difficulty with and without Reading Difficulty: Findings and Implications from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study
Vukovic, Rose K.
Exceptional Children, v78 n3 p280-300 Spr 2012
An overarching question guided this study:What is mathematics difficulty (MD) independent of reading difficulty (RD)? The sample included 203 children whom the researchers followed from kindergarten to third grade. The researchers used latent growth modeling to investigate the relationship between MD and measures of working memory, short-term memory, cognitive processing speed, early numerical skills, and phonological processing, independent of reading. Two main findings emerged: (a) deficits in early numerical skills were a defining feature of MD with or without RD, and (b) early numerical skills and phonological processing influenced growth in mathematics from kindergarten to third grade. These results indicate that future MD research should focus on numerical and language-based skills, including whether the mathematics disorder in MD--specific or otherwise--reflects underlying language and/or numerical deficits. (Contains 6 tables and 1 figure.)
Council for Exceptional Children. 1110 North Glebe Road Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201. Tel: 888-232-7733; Fax: 703-264-9494; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wide Range Achievement Test; Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement