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Kikas, Eve; Mägi, Katrin – Early Child Development and Care, 2015
This study examined transactional development of mothers' beliefs (self-efficacy, success attributions of a child's success to maternal effort) and children's academic skills. Six hundred sixty-eight children and their mothers were evaluated twice: at the beginning of the first grade and at the end of the third grade. Mothers' beliefs were…
Descriptors: Mothers, Self Efficacy, Success, Child Rearing
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Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Palu, Anu; Afanasjev, Juri – Educational Psychology, 2009
In this study, we examined the development of maths skills in 269 Estonian primary school children (119 boys and 150 girls; 20 classes). Testing was carried out over a three-year period (Grade 1-Grade 3). Before the last testing session, children's verbal skills and motivational orientations were also tested. In addition, teachers evaluated…
Descriptors: Student Attitudes, Testing, Verbal Ability, Grade 3