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Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Kudo, Milagros – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2017
This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2,…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Bilingualism, Reading Difficulties, Spanish Speaking
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Beach, Kristen D.; O'Connor, Rollanda E. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2015
We explored the usefulness of first and second grade reading measures and responsiveness criteria collected within a response-to-intervention (RtI) framework for predicting reading disability (RD) in third grade. We used existing data from 387 linguistically diverse students who had participated in a longitudinal RtI study. Model-based predictors…
Descriptors: Response to Intervention, Reading Difficulties, Predictor Variables, Criteria
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Cronin, Virginia S. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2013
Lervag and Hulme’s neuro-developmental theory and Wolf and Bowers’s double-deficit hypothesis were examined in this longitudinal study. A total of 130 children were tested in preschool and followed through fifth grade, when 84 remained in the study. During preschool and kindergarten the participants were given tests of end-sound discrimination…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Child Development, Phonological Awareness, Naming
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Waesche, Jessica S. Brown; Schatschneider, Christopher; Maner, Jon K.; Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2011
Rates of agreement among alternative definitions of reading disability and their 1- and 2-year stabilities were examined using a new measure of agreement, the affected-status agreement statistic. Participants were 288,114 first through third grade students. Reading measures were "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" Oral…
Descriptors: Reading Fluency, Definitions, Economically Disadvantaged, Low Achievement