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Finn, Bridgid; Wendler, Cathy; Ricker-Pedley, Kathryn L.; Arslan, Burcu – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
This report investigates whether the time between scoring sessions has an influence on operational and nonoperational scoring accuracy. The study evaluates raters' scoring accuracy on constructed-response essay responses for the "GRE"® General Test. Binomial linear mixed-effect models are presented that evaluate how the effect of various…
Descriptors: Intervals, Scoring, Accuracy, Essay Tests
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Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
Notable mean score differences for the "e-rater"® automated scoring engine and for humans for essays from certain demographic groups were observed for the "GRE"® General Test in use before the major revision of 2012, called rGRE. The use of e-rater as a check-score model with discrepancy thresholds prevented an adverse impact…
Descriptors: Scores, Computer Assisted Testing, Test Scoring Machines, Automation
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Breyer, F. Jay; Rupp, André A.; Bridgeman, Brent – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
In this research report, we present an empirical argument for the use of a contributory scoring approach for the 2-essay writing assessment of the analytical writing section of the "GRE"® test in which human and machine scores are combined for score creation at the task and section levels. The approach was designed to replace a currently…
Descriptors: College Entrance Examinations, Scoring, Essay Tests, Writing Evaluation
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Buzick, Heather; Oliveri, Maria Elena; Attali, Yigal; Flor, Michael – Applied Measurement in Education, 2016
Automated essay scoring is a developing technology that can provide efficient scoring of large numbers of written responses. Its use in higher education admissions testing provides an opportunity to collect validity and fairness evidence to support current uses and inform its emergence in other areas such as K-12 large-scale assessment. In this…
Descriptors: Essays, Learning Disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Scoring
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Brown, Kevin – CEA Forum, 2015
In this article, the author describes his project to take every standardized exam English majors students take. During the summer and fall semesters of 2012, the author signed up for and took the GRE General Test, the Praxis Content Area Exam (English Language, Literature, and Composition: Content Knowledge), the Senior Major Field Tests in…
Descriptors: College Faculty, College English, Test Preparation, Standardized Tests
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Attali, Yigal; Sinharay, Sandip – ETS Research Report Series, 2015
The "e-rater"® automated essay scoring system is used operationally in the scoring of the argument and issue tasks that form the Analytical Writing measure of the "GRE"® General Test. For each of these tasks, this study explored the value added of reporting 4 trait scores for each of these 2 tasks over the total e-rater score.…
Descriptors: Scores, Computer Assisted Testing, Computer Software, Grammar
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Breyer, F. Jay; Attali, Yigal; Williamson, David M.; Ridolfi-McCulla, Laura; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Duchnowski, Matthew; Harris, April – ETS Research Report Series, 2014
In this research, we investigated the feasibility of implementing the "e-rater"® scoring engine as a check score in place of all-human scoring for the "Graduate Record Examinations"® ("GRE"®) revised General Test (rGRE) Analytical Writing measure. This report provides the scientific basis for the use of e-rater as a…
Descriptors: Computer Software, Computer Assisted Testing, Scoring, College Entrance Examinations
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Almond, Russell G. – International Journal of Testing, 2014
Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…
Descriptors: Automation, Equated Scores, Writing Tests, Essay Tests
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Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael – Language Testing, 2013
Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…
Descriptors: Scoring, Essay Tests, Reliability, High Stakes Tests
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Bejar, Isaac I.; VanWinkle, Waverely; Madnani, Nitin; Lewis, William; Steier, Michael – ETS Research Report Series, 2013
The paper applies a natural language computational tool to study a potential construct-irrelevant response strategy, namely the use of "shell language." Although the study is motivated by the impending increase in the volume of scoring of students responses from assessments to be developed in response to the Race to the Top initiative,…
Descriptors: Responses, Language Usage, Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics
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Zhang, Mo – ETS Research Report Series, 2013
Many testing programs use automated scoring to grade essays. One issue in automated essay scoring that has not been examined adequately is population invariance and its causes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sampling in model calibration on population invariance of automated scores. This study analyzed scores…
Descriptors: Automation, Scoring, Essay Tests, Sampling
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Dorans, Neil J. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2012
Views on testing--its purpose and uses and how its data are analyzed--are related to one's perspective on test takers. Test takers can be viewed as learners, examinees, or contestants. I briefly discuss the perspective of test takers as learners. I maintain that much of psychometrics views test takers as examinees. I discuss test takers as a…
Descriptors: Testing, Test Theory, Item Response Theory, Test Reliability
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Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine; Attali, Yigal – Applied Measurement in Education, 2012
Essay scores generated by machine and by human raters are generally comparable; that is, they can produce scores with similar means and standard deviations, and machine scores generally correlate as highly with human scores as scores from one human correlate with scores from another human. Although human and machine essay scores are highly related…
Descriptors: Scoring, Essay Tests, College Entrance Examinations, High Stakes Tests
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Ramineni, Chaitanya; Trapani, Catherine S.; Williamson, David M.; Davey, Tim; Bridgeman, Brent – ETS Research Report Series, 2012
Automated scoring models for the "e-rater"® scoring engine were built and evaluated for the "GRE"® argument and issue-writing tasks. Prompt-specific, generic, and generic with prompt-specific intercept scoring models were built and evaluation statistics such as weighted kappas, Pearson correlations, standardized difference in…
Descriptors: Scoring, Test Scoring Machines, Automation, Models
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Davey, Tim; Lee, Yi-Hsuan – ETS Research Report Series, 2011
Both theoretical and practical considerations have led the revision of the Graduate Record Examinations® (GRE®) revised General Test, here called the rGRE, to adopt a multistage adaptive design that will be continuously or nearly continuously administered and that can provide immediate score reporting. These circumstances sharply constrain the…
Descriptors: Context Effect, Scoring, Equated Scores, College Entrance Examinations
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