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Carnoy, Martin; Khavenson, Tatiana; Ivanova, Alina – Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 2015
In this paper, we develop a multi-level comparative approach to analyse Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS) and Programme of International Student Achievement (PISA) mathematics results for a country, Russia, where the two tests provide contradictory information about students' relative performance. Russian students do…
Descriptors: Comparative Education, Educational Policy, Achievement Tests, Mathematics Achievement
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Bodovski, Katerina; Kotok, Stephen; Henck, Adrienne – Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 2014
Although communist ideology claimed to destroy former class stratification based on labour market capitalist relationships, "de facto" during socialism one social class hierarchy was substituted for another that was equally unequal. The economic transition during the 1990s increased stratification by wealth, which affected educational…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Political Attitudes, Ideology, Social Stratification