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Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin – Oxford Review of Education, 2016
In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…
Descriptors: Social Change, Social Systems, Academic Achievement, Russian
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Carnoy, Martin; Khavenson, Tatiana; Ivanova, Alina – Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 2015
In this paper, we develop a multi-level comparative approach to analyse Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS) and Programme of International Student Achievement (PISA) mathematics results for a country, Russia, where the two tests provide contradictory information about students' relative performance. Russian students do…
Descriptors: Comparative Education, Educational Policy, Achievement Tests, Mathematics Achievement