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Bell, Courtney A.; Dobbelaer, Marjoleine J.; Klette, Kirsti; Visscher, Adrie – School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 2019
Observation systems are increasingly used around the world for a variety of purposes; 2 critical purposes are to understand and to improve teaching. As observation systems differ considerably, individuals must decide what observation system to use. But the field does not have a common specification of an observation system, nor does it have…
Descriptors: Classroom Observation Techniques, Instructional Improvement, Evaluation Methods, Systems Approach
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Straková, Jana; Simonová, Jaroslava; Greger, David – School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 2018
Educational effectiveness research has provided evidence about the importance of teacher beliefs and attitudes for teaching and learning. This study builds on the concept of academic optimism, which combines 3 aspects of a teacher's professional creed: self-efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. The study explores the functioning of the…
Descriptors: Pilot Projects, Mathematics Instruction, Mathematics Achievement, Secondary School Mathematics
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Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros – School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 2017
Policies about reducing class size have been implemented in the US and Europe in the past decades. Only a few studies have discussed the effects of class size at different levels of student achievement, and their findings have been mixed. We employ quantile regression analysis, coupled with instrumental variables, to examine the causal effects of…
Descriptors: Class Size, Achievement Gap, Educational Policy, Achievement Tests
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Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika – School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 2015
A goal in many countries is to institute state-wide exams to base student assessment more firmly on norms for all classes. This raises the question as to the extent to which greater standardization of grading practice can be reached by implementing state-wide exit exams. Since there is a lack of longitudinal studies, we analyzed the effect of the…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Assessment, Exit Examinations, Longitudinal Studies
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Gustafsson, Jan-Eric – School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 2013
In educational effectiveness research, it frequently has proven difficult to make credible inferences about cause and effect relations. The article first identifies the main categories of threats to valid causal inference from observational data, and discusses designs and analytic approaches which protect against them. With the use of data from 22…
Descriptors: Attribution Theory, Homework, Mathematics Achievement, Regression (Statistics)