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Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin – Oxford Review of Education, 2016
In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…
Descriptors: Social Change, Social Systems, Academic Achievement, Russian
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Carnoy, Martin – National Education Policy Center, 2015
Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…
Descriptors: Criticism, Reputation, Test Validity, Error of Measurement