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Carlson, Curt A.; Hemby, Jacob A.; Wooten, Alex R.; Jones, Alyssa R.; Lockamyeir, Robert F.; Carlson, Maria A.; Dias, Jennifer L.; Whittington, Jane E. – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2021
The diagnostic feature-detection theory (DFT) of eyewitness identification is based on facial information that is diagnostic versus non-diagnostic of suspect guilt. It primarily has been tested by discounting non-diagnostic information at retrieval, typically by surrounding a single suspect showup with good fillers to create a lineup. We tested…
Descriptors: Identification, Recognition (Psychology), Criminals, Recall (Psychology)
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Di Lorenzo, Renata; Munsters, Nicolette M.; Ward, Emma K.; de Jonge, Maretha; Kemner, Chantal; van den Boomen, Carlijn – Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2021
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical processing of facial expressions. Research with autistic toddlers suggests that abnormalities in processing of spatial frequencies (SFs) contribute to such differences. The current event-related-potential (ERP) study investigated differences between 10-month-old infants with high- and…
Descriptors: Fear, Emotional Response, Brain, Cognitive Processes
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Kelly, Michelle P.; Reed, Phil – International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2021
Stimulus over-selectivity is said to have occurred when only a limited subset of the total number of stimuli present during discrimination learning controls behavior, thus, restricting learning about the range, breadth, or all features of a stimulus. The current study investigated over-selectivity of 100 typically developing children, aged 3-7…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Attention Control, Visual Discrimination, Task Analysis
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Kelly, M. P.; Reed, P. – Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 2021
"Stimulus over-selectivity" describes a phenomenon in which an individual responds only to a subset of the stimuli present in the environment and, thus, may restrict learning. This study aimed to develop understanding of the nature and role of over-selectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by analyzing the relationship of…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Behavior Problems, Cognitive Processes
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Bergmann, Samantha; Turner, Maria; Kodak, Tiffany; Grow, Laura L.; Meyerhofer, Courtney; Niland, Haven S.; Edmonds, Kaitlyn – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2021
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are taught conditional discriminations often during early intervention. Auditory-visual conditional discrimination (AVCD) training requires the presentation of multiple antecedent stimuli, and the order of stimulus presentation varies in the literature. This series of studies replicated previous…
Descriptors: Children, Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Intervention
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Sensoy, Özlem; Culham, Jody C.; Schwarzer, Gudrun – Infant and Child Development, 2021
We investigate when infants exhibit knowledge of the familiar size of well-known objects and whether this knowledge is affected by stimulus format, that is, whether the stimuli are presented as real objects or matched pictures. Infants (130 7- and 12-month-olds) saw everyday objects such as sippy cups and pacifiers in their familiar size and novel…
Descriptors: Infants, Visual Stimuli, Pictorial Stimuli, Familiarity
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Elsayed, Sabah Abdalla; Al-Najrani, Hamda Ibrahim – EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 2021
This research aimed to identify the effectiveness of augmented reality technology on improving visual thinking in mathematics and academic motivation among middle school learners in Saudi Arabia. To accomplish the research objectives, the experimental method with a quasi-experimental design was adopted and it included an experimental group and a…
Descriptors: Computer Simulation, Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Thinking Skills
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Nava, Elena; Föcker, Julia; Gori, Monica – Developmental Science, 2020
Combining information across different sensory modalities is of critical importance for the animal's survival and a core feature of human's everyday life. In adulthood, sensory information is often integrated in a statistically optimal fashion, so that the combined estimates of two or more senses are more reliable than the best single one. Several…
Descriptors: Sensory Integration, Preschool Children, Teaching Methods, Games
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Peleg, Orna; Ben-hur, Galia; Segal, Osnat – Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2020
Purpose: Studies on reading in individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss (deaf) raise the possibility that, due to deficient phonological coding, deaf individuals may rely more on orthographic-semantic links than on orthographic-phonological links. However, the relative contribution of phonological and semantic information to visual word…
Descriptors: Word Recognition, Visual Discrimination, Deafness, Adults
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Robson, Samuel G.; Searston, Rachel A.; Edmond, Gary; McCarthy, Duncan J.; Tangen, Jason M. – Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2020
Perceptual experts have learned to rapidly and accurately perceive the structural regularities that define categories and identities within a domain. They extract important features and their relations more efficiently than novices. We used fingerprint examination to investigate expert-novice differences in feature choice. On each fingerprint…
Descriptors: Expertise, Novices, Criminology, Genetics
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Lockamyeir, Robert F.; Carlson, Curt A.; Jones, Alyssa R.; Carlson, Maria A.; Weatherford, Dawn R. – Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2020
The distance from which an eyewitness views a perpetrator is a critical factor for eyewitness identification, but has received little research attention. We presented three mock-crime videos to participants, varying distance to three perpetrators (3, 10, or 20 m). Across two experiments, increased distance reduced empirical discriminability in the…
Descriptors: Visual Discrimination, Accuracy, Identification, Crime
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Sun, Meng; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wang, Jiangmeng; Liu, Hailan; Zhang, Qin; Cui, Lixia – SAGE Open, 2020
This study explored whether the color of letters could influence letter discrimination task performances and whether this effect of color could be modulated by processing level (global vs. local) and attention level of color (color-attended vs. color-unattended). We used the Navon letters in red, green, or white as stimuli at a relatively small…
Descriptors: Color, Cognitive Processes, Attention, Alphabets
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Karaminis, Themis; Arrighi, Roberto; Forth, Georgia; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth – Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2020
Autistic individuals often present atypicalities in adaptation--the continuous recalibration of perceptual systems driven by recent sensory experiences. Here, we examined such atypicalities in human biological motion. We used a dual-task paradigm, including a running-speed discrimination task ('comparing the speed of two running silhouettes') and…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Elementary School Students, Secondary School Students, Autism
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Smyth, Rachael E.; Ansari, Daniel – Developmental Science, 2020
Research demonstrating that infants discriminate between small (e.g., 1 vs. 3 dots) and large numerosities (e.g., 8 vs. 16 dots) is central to theories concerning the origins of human numerical abilities. To date, there has been no quantitative meta-analysis of the infant numerical competency data. Here, we quantitatively synthesize the evidential…
Descriptors: Infants, Visual Perception, Visual Stimuli, Numeracy
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Liefooghe, Baptist; Hughes, Sean; Schmidt, James R.; De Houwer, Jan – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2020
Automaticity can be established by consistently reinforcing contingencies during practice. During reinforcement learning, however, new relations can also be derived, which were never directly reinforced. For instance, reinforcing the overlapping contingencies A [right arrow] B and A [right arrow] C, can lead to a new relation B-C, which was never…
Descriptors: Reinforcement, Visual Stimuli, Interference (Learning), Reaction Time
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