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Dröse, Jennifer; Prediger, Susanne; Neugebauer, Philipp; Delucchi Danhier, Renate; Mertins, Barbara – International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 2021
Syntactic language features of word problems have often been identified by assessment studies and interview studies as potential obstacles in word problem solving. However, students' processes of noticing and interpreting these features have only rarely been investigated in depth because noticing is hard to investigate. Eye-tracking methodology…
Descriptors: Attention, Problem Solving, Word Problems (Mathematics), Syntax
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Cuihua, Wu; Lingling, Liu – Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 2014
This paper spotlights the twelve slogans of the Olympic Games in order to critically analyze the ideologies underlying the discourse. By taking the principles of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and Halliday's (1994) systemic-functional grammar (SFG) as analytical tools, the paper endeavours to reveal the ideology that predominates in the ruling…
Descriptors: Ideology, Athletics, Thematic Approach, Discourse Analysis
Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan – ProQuest LLC, 2012
Natural Language Generation (NLG) is the process of generating natural language text from an input, which is a communicative goal and a database or knowledge base. Informally, the architecture of a standard NLG system consists of the following modules (Reiter and Dale, 2000): content determination, sentence planning (or microplanning) and surface…
Descriptors: Natural Language Processing, Linguistics, Language Processing, Models
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Al-Saidat, Emad M.; Warsi, Mohammad J. – Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2011
The major portion of this paper is devoted to delineate the types of errors made by Arab learners of English in the area of the article system. By so doing, the paper classifies learners' errors according to the Surface Structure Taxonomies of errors, and illustrates the possible sources of these errors. In order to overcome learners' difficulties…
Descriptors: Surface Structure, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Classification
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Bryant, Gregory A. – Discourse Processes: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2010
Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…
Descriptors: Surface Structure, Speech Communication, Suprasegmentals, Figurative Language
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Nilsen, Don L. F.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace – English Journal, 2009
"Trope" comes from a Greek word meaning "turn." In the rhetorical sense, a trope refers to a "turn" in the way that words are being used to communicate something more than--or different from--a literal or straightforward message. Tropes are part of "deep structure" meanings and include such rhetorical devices as allegories, allusions, euphemisms,…
Descriptors: Fantasy, Figurative Language, Semantics, Surface Structure
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Meinzer, Marcus; Lahiri, Aditi; Flaisch, Tobias; Hannemann, Ronny; Eulitz, Carsten – Neuropsychologia, 2009
Within linguistics, words with a complex internal structure are commonly assumed to be decomposed into their constituent morphemes (e.g., un-help-ful). Nevertheless, an ongoing debate concerns the brain structures that subserve this process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study varied the internal complexity of derived…
Descriptors: Surface Structure, Reading Difficulties, Cues, Morphemes
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Albert, Marc K. – Psychological Review, 2008
M. Singh and B. L. Anderson proposed a perceptual theory of achromatic transparency in which the perceived transmittance of a perceived transparent filter is determined by the ratio of the Michelson contrast seen in the region of transparency to that of the background seen directly. Subsequently, B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, and J. Meng proposed that…
Descriptors: Theories, Perception, Cognitive Processes, Surface Structure
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Albert, Marc K. – Psychological Review, 2008
All of the data reported in Robilotto, Khang, and Zaidi (2002) Robilotto and Zaidi (2004), and Singh and Anderson (2002) are consistent with Robilotto and Zaidi's theory that perceived transparency (or opacity) is determined by the perceived contrast of the filter region. Kasrai and Kingdom's (2001) results also appear largely consistent with the…
Descriptors: Stimuli, Surface Structure, Visual Learning, Visual Perception
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Anderson, Barton L.; Singh, Manish; O'Vari, Judit – Psychological Review, 2008
In M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, the authors proposed a model based on ratios of Michelson contrasts to explain how human observers quantitatively scale the perceived opacity of transparent surfaces. In subsequent work by B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, & J. Meng, the authors found that this model failed to generalize to other contexts and replaced it…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Observation, Models, Experimental Psychology
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Anderson, Barton L.; Singh, Manish; Fleming, Roland W. – Cognitive Psychology, 2002
One of the main theoretical challenges of vision science is to explain how the visual system interpolates missing structure. Two forms of visual completion have been distinguished on the basis of the phenomenological states that they induce. "Modal" completion refers to the formation of visible surfaces and/or contours in image regions where these…
Descriptors: Surface Structure, Visual Learning, Phenomenology
Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn – 1980
This report describes part of a longer study on sentence comprehension. The long range goal is to identify distinct levels of processing in terms of the types of linguistic and extralinguistic information each level uses. The focus of this part of the study is sentences with filler-gap relations, such as, "This is the girl the teacher wanted to…
Descriptors: Language Processing, Language Research, Listening Comprehension, Psycholinguistics
Foorman, Barbara R.; Kinoshita, Yoshiko – 1981
The role of linguistic structure in a referential communication task was examined by comparing encoding and decoding performance of 80 five- and seven-year-old children from Japan and the United States. The linguist structure demanded by the task was the simultaneous encoding and decoding of attributes of size, color, pattern, and shape. (In…
Descriptors: Adjectives, Comparative Analysis, Cultural Differences, Early Childhood Education
Bousquet, Robert J. – 1980
Many factors influence the comprehension of a linguistic act by a listener or reader. Some, such as maturity, background, and interests of the decoder are nonlinguistic; others, such as the vocabulary and complexity of the morphological and syntactical structures are linguistic in nature. A review of the literature reveals that while studies have…
Descriptors: Comprehension, Deep Structure, Difficulty Level, Linguistics
Rudin, Catherine – 1986
The unique position of WH words in Slavic languages is discussed, with specific reference to Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. The multiple fronting characteristics of Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian differ in terms of the following positions and behaviors: extraction from embedded questions; clitic placement and other indications of constituent status;…
Descriptors: Bulgarian, Comparative Analysis, Connected Discourse, Form Classes (Languages)
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