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ERIC Number: EJ832598
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0016-9862
Mother and Toddler Activity in the Zone of Proximal Development for Pretend Play as a Predictor of Higher Child IQ
Morrissey, Anne-Marie; Brown, P. Margaret
Gifted Child Quarterly, v53 n2 p106-120 2009
This study investigated the pretend play of mother-toddler dyads in relation to later child IQ. Twenty-one toddlers were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months, and later assessed at 5 years of age on the Stanford-Binet IV. Children's and mothers' pretend play levels and frequencies were measured using Brown's (1997) Pretend Play Observation Scale. Dyadic play activity was analyzed using the conceptual frameworks of scaffolding and Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)." Toddlers later assessed as having higher IQ demonstrated more rapid learning in the ZPD for pretend play and experienced earlier maternal transfer of responsibility for play. These findings support other evidence on the differential early development of high ability or gifted children and the role of caregiver interactions in that development. (Contains 4 tables, 2 figures and 1 note.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale