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Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; Xu, Le; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Dake – Journal of Educational Research, 2017
The authors' aim was to examine the relations among mental multiplication, working memory load (WML), and automaticity by alternating the difficulty level of task characteristics. In Experiment 1, involving 30 fifth-grade students with mixed abilities, a 2 (WML) × 2 (automaticity) design was utilized. In Experiment 2, involving 21 high-achieving…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Multiplication, Correlation, Grade 5