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Lin, Olivia Y.-H.; MacLeod, Colin M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Three experiments investigated the learning of simple associations in a color-word contingency task. Participants responded manually to the print colors of 3 words, with each word associated strongly to 1 of the 3 colors and weakly to the other 2 colors. Despite the words being irrelevant, response times to high-contingency stimuli and to…
Descriptors: Associative Learning, Learning Processes, Contingency Management, Color
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Wammes, Jeffrey D.; Meade, Melissa E.; Fernandes, Myra A. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Drawing a picture of to-be-remembered information substantially boosts memory performance in free-recall tasks. In the current work, we sought to test the notion that drawing confers its benefit to memory performance by creating a detailed recollection of the encoding context. In Experiments 1 and 2, we demonstrated that for both pictures and…
Descriptors: Freehand Drawing, Recall (Psychology), Memory, Cognitive Processes
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Cochrane, Brett A.; Nwabuike, Andrea A.; Thomson, David R.; Milliken, Bruce – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Maljkovic and Nakayama (1994) found that pop-out search performance is more efficient when a singleton target feature repeats rather than switches from 1 trial to the next--an effect known as priming of pop-out (PoP). They also reported findings indicating that the PoP effect is strongly automatic, as it was unaffected by knowledge of the upcoming…
Descriptors: Imagery, Priming, Visual Stimuli, Color
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Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Reconstructing memory for sequences is a complex process, likely involving multiple sources of information. In 3 experiments, we examined the source(s) of information that might underlie the ability to accurately place an event within a temporal context. The task was to estimate, after studying each list, the temporal position of a single test…
Descriptors: Information Sources, Cognitive Processes, Memory, Sequential Approach
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White, Darcy; Besner, Derek – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
There are multiple reports, in the context of the time taken to read aloud, that the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency (a) interact when only words appear in the list but (b) are additive when nonwords are intermixed with words (O'Malley & Besner, 2008). This triple interaction has been explained in terms of the idea that…
Descriptors: Oral Reading, Stimuli, Word Frequency, Language Processing
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Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Remembering the order of a sequence of events is a fundamental feature of episodic memory. Indeed, a number of formal models represent temporal context as part of the memory system, and memory for order has been researched extensively. Yet, the nature of the code(s) underlying sequence memory is still relatively unknown. Across 4 experiments that…
Descriptors: Memory, Recall (Psychology), Sequential Learning, Experiments
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Newman, Ian R.; Gibb, Maia; Thompson, Valerie A. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this…
Descriptors: Logical Thinking, Beliefs, Bias, Problem Solving
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Zimmermann, Jacqueline F.; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Recall (Psychology), Spatial Ability, Audio Equipment
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Schmidtke, Daniel; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Kuperman, Victor – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
The current study addresses a discrepancy in the psycholinguistic literature about the chronology of information processing during the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. "Form-then-meaning" accounts of complex word recognition claim that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings,…
Descriptors: Word Recognition, Reaction Time, Eye Movements, Language Processing
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Zhou, Ruojing; Mou, Weimin – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2016
Cognitive mapping is assumed to be through hippocampus-dependent place learning rather than striatum-dependent response learning. However, we proposed that either type of spatial learning, as long as it involves encoding metric relations between locations and reference points, could lead to a cognitive map. Furthermore, the fewer reference points…
Descriptors: Cognitive Mapping, Learning, Spatial Ability, Accuracy
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Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2016
Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…
Descriptors: Semantics, Reading, Grade 5, Experiments
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Forrin, Noah D.; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2016
It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the "production effect"--the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Oral Reading, Silent Reading, Word Lists
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Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015
McDaniel and Bugg (2008) proposed that relatively uncommon stimuli and encoding tasks encourage elaborative encoding of individual items (item-specific processing), whereas relatively typical or common encoding tasks encourage encoding of associations among list items (relational processing). It is this relational processing that is thought to…
Descriptors: Memory, Cognitive Processes, Semantics, Interference (Learning)
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Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015
One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…
Descriptors: Logical Thinking, Theories, Bayesian Statistics, Probability
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Bowles, Ben; Köhler, Stefan – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2014
Situations in which the name of a person is perceived as familiar but does not trigger recall of pertinent semantic knowledge are common in daily life. In current connectionist models of person recognition, such "familiar-only" experiences reflect supra-threshold activation at person-identity nodes but subthreshold activation at nodes…
Descriptors: Semantics, Familiarity, Naming, Recognition (Psychology)
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