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Frankenberg, Erica; Hawley, Genevieve Siegel; Ee, Jongyeon; Orfield, Gary – Civil Rights Project - Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2017
The South was the central focus of the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision from the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954. The landmark ruling held that laws mandating segregation in the school systems of the eleven states of the Old Confederacy, along with D.C. and six other states, violated the U.S. Constitution. Intense opposition met the…
Descriptors: Geographic Regions, Civil Rights, Educational History, School Desegregation
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Annamma, Subini; Morrison, Deb; Jackson, Darrell – Berkeley Review of Education, 2014
The focus on the achievement gap has overshadowed ways in which school systems constrain student achievement through trends of racial disproportionality in areas such as school discipline, special education assignment, and juvenile justice. Using Critical Race Theory, we reframe these racial disparities as issues of institutionalized racism.…
Descriptors: Disproportionate Representation, Critical Theory, Race, Racial Differences