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Annamma, Subini; Morrison, Deb; Jackson, Darrell – Berkeley Review of Education, 2014
The focus on the achievement gap has overshadowed ways in which school systems constrain student achievement through trends of racial disproportionality in areas such as school discipline, special education assignment, and juvenile justice. Using Critical Race Theory, we reframe these racial disparities as issues of institutionalized racism.…
Descriptors: Disproportionate Representation, Critical Theory, Race, Racial Differences
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Hoffman, Michael J.; Wiggall, Richard L.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.; Emanuel, Gary L. – eJEP: eJournal of Education Policy, 2013
Adequate funding for the nation's schools to meet the call for higher student achievement has been a litigious issue. Spending on schools is a political choice. The choices made by state legislatures, in some cases, have failed to fund schools adequately and have incited school finance lawsuits in almost all states. These proceedings are generally…
Descriptors: Financial Support, Educational Finance, Academic Achievement, State Legislation