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Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2015
The authors empirically examined whether the validity of a residualized dependent variable after covariance adjustment is comparable to that of the original variable of interest. When variance of a dependent variable is removed as a result of one or more covariates, the residual variance may not reflect the same meaning. Using the pretest-posttest…
Descriptors: Statistical Analysis, Construct Validity, Pretesting, Pretests Posttests