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Bhola, H. S. – 1974
This paper presents a conceptualization that interprets the processes of policymaking, institution building, and change planning as aspects of the same generic phenomenon of cultural action. Central to this conceptualization is a view of power that explains the dynamics of these related processes while it demonstrates their integral unity. The…
Descriptors: Culture, Educational Change, Educational Planning, Educational Policy
Bhola, H. S. – 1985
After Botswana became independent of British rule in 1966, a series of five-year plans for economic development were written and put into action. Education was always seen by development planners as essential for development; by 1977, the government was promoting education for human resource development. Every child in the country was to be given…
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Literacy, Adult Programs, Developing Nations
Bhola, H. S. – 1982
After an analysis of eight mass literacy campaigns (USSR 1919-39; Vietnam, 1945-77; China, 1950-58; Cuba, 1961; Burma, 1960-1981; Brazil, 1967-80; Tanzania, 1971-81; and Somalia, 1973-75), a campaign strategy for a mass literacy campaign is proposed. A potentially successful mass literacy campaign has to be both an educational and a political…
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Literacy, Developing Nations, Educational Needs