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Zoupidis, Anastasios; Pnevmatikos, Dimitrios; Spyrtou, Anna; Kariotoglou, Petros – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2016
The aim of the present study was twofold. First, we aimed to replicate the findings of previous studies which had showed a substantial improvement on procedural and epistemological knowledge after direct instruction and their maintenance in time. Second, we aimed to examine the dynamic relationships of the procedural (control of variables…
Descriptors: Epistemology, Grade 5, Questionnaires, Path Analysis
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Rau, Martina A.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Prior research shows that representational competencies that enable students to use graphical representations to reason and solve tasks is key to learning in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains. We focus on two types of representational competencies: (1) "sense making" of connections by verbally explaining how…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade 5