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Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu – Child Development, 2009
This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…
Descriptors: Behavior Problems, Low Income, Toddlers, Whites
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Raikes, Helen; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Luze, Gayle; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Constantine, Jill; Tarullo, Louisa Banks; Raikes, H. Abigail; Rodriguez, Eileen T. – Child Development, 2006
About half of 2,581 low-income mothers reported reading daily to their children. At 14 months, the odds of reading daily increased by the child being firstborn or female. At 24 and 36 months, these odds increased by maternal verbal ability or education and by the child being firstborn or of Early Head Start status. White mothers read more than did…
Descriptors: Mothers, Parent Child Relationship, Low Income Groups, Correlation