NotesFAQContact Us
Collection
Advanced
Search Tips
Publication Date
In 20190
Since 20180
Since 2015 (last 5 years)0
Since 2010 (last 10 years)0
Since 2000 (last 20 years)1
Source
Child Development1
Education Level
Audience
Location
Laws, Policies, & Programs
Assessments and Surveys
What Works Clearinghouse Rating
Showing one result Save | Export
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu – Child Development, 2009
This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…
Descriptors: Behavior Problems, Low Income, Toddlers, Whites