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Djiwandono, Bianti – Journal of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, 1979
Central governments must recognize the need for decentralization of development efforts, to plan programs specific to the needs and conditions of each target population. Development programs are characterized by program overlap because of diversity of sponsorship. A possible mechanism is a training and development center at the subnational level.…
Descriptors: Developing Nations, Dropouts, Educational Change, Educational Development
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Tournas, Stephen A. – Comparative Education, 1996
In Botswana, precolonial Tswana spirituality gave way to European secularization. This, plus related changes in labor patterns, government, and educational practices, led to the transformative educational philosophy that now separates the Tswana from the environment and traditional religious beliefs. This cultural fragmentation underlies the…
Descriptors: Colonialism, Culture Conflict, Dropouts, Educational Development