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Djiwandono, Bianti – Journal of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, 1979
Central governments must recognize the need for decentralization of development efforts, to plan programs specific to the needs and conditions of each target population. Development programs are characterized by program overlap because of diversity of sponsorship. A possible mechanism is a training and development center at the subnational level.…
Descriptors: Developing Nations, Dropouts, Educational Change, Educational Development
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Tournas, Stephen A. – Comparative Education, 1996
In Botswana, precolonial Tswana spirituality gave way to European secularization. This, plus related changes in labor patterns, government, and educational practices, led to the transformative educational philosophy that now separates the Tswana from the environment and traditional religious beliefs. This cultural fragmentation underlies the…
Descriptors: Colonialism, Culture Conflict, Dropouts, Educational Development
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Thomas, R. Murray – Comparative Education, 1993
Describes principal characteristics of traditional education in island societies before Western contact, patterns of Western exploration and colonization, and origins of formal Western education in the region. Identifies critical contemporary educational issues: choice of educational delivery systems, establishing the locus of authority,…
Descriptors: Colonialism, Educational Change, Educational Development, Educational History